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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Cameron Franco

Chapter 1 Notes GEOG 100

Cameron Franco
Cal State Fullerton
Global Geography
J. Taylor

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About this Document

A set of notes taken from the "Contemporary World Geography 4th Edition" textbook. Contains essential points and facts needed for best performance on weekly quizzes as well as upcoming final.
Global Geography
J. Taylor
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cameron Franco on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by J. Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 08/29/15
11 Planet Earth A World of Variety Change and Connectivity 3 World regional geography examines how places on Earth differ from each other how people live in different parts of world and how they connect v Geography s contribution to understanding relationship between human and ecosystems environments v Crosscultural appreciation and technologic advancement is built from increasing connections between people and places using social media production v Global connections may enhance our awareness of success potential amp tragedy 12 Geography in Today s World 39339 What is Geography gt Geographic Subject Matter Geography a discipline that studies spatial patterns in the human and physical world Geographers examine human and natural features of Earth and how they change overtime history sociology economics politics environmental science can be included disciplines Physical geography natural environmental processes across Earth s surface Human geography the study of the distribution of people and their activites Geographic literacy is becoming much more essential because of increasing connections and interactions gt Location Direction and Representation Since geographers study places on Earth as the environments where people live their study provides a placerelated spatial view of the human experience Places are often identified by their location on the globe Absolution location the precise location of places on Earth s surface Latitude and longitude form the framework of an international accepted coordinatebased reference system that can pinpoint absolute locations 0 Latitude North amp south of Equator 0 Parallel of latitude Circle that joins places of the same latitude at Earth s surface 0 Longitude East amp west of imaginary line drawn from North Pole to South Pole 0 Meridians of longitude Lines joining places of the same longitude I While radio signals were used in the 20th century to pinpoint locations we now use global positioning systems GPS to map locations gt Direction and Distance I Latitude and longitude make the cardinal point directions of N S E amp W useful in everyday life I Direction and distance help to de ne the relative location of one place with reference to another I Obstacles in physical or human infrastructure create greater relative distance between places The absolute distance between places is usually measured in km or mi The increasing cost and time needed to bridge distance between places gives rise to concept of friction of distance gt Scale I Size differences among places are related by a size ratio or scale 0 Ex neighborhood country global gt Maps and Geographic Information Systems I Maps humancreated representations of areas of Earth s surface information presented about location distance direction and other characteristics of places I Geographic information systems GIS combine maps and aerial satellite images with arearelevant data 13 Geo ra h 0 Re ions 39239 Region an area of Earth s surface with physical and human characteristics that distinguish it from other places 39239 Regional geography evaluates differences and similarities within and among defined areas of Earth gt Dynamic Concepts of Regions I Regional geography involves three basic sets of ideas 0 Regions are human constructs defined and created by geographers and others for specific purposes De nition of a region and the characteristics used to distinguish it vary from one person to another 0 Regions have a number of basic characteristics including an areal extent and boundaries May be based on physical features political boundaries economic characteristics or cultural practices 0 Regions are essentially dynamic entities marked by internal and external ow patterns of people goods and ideas Regions are spaces of ows population migrations distribution of goods and services movements of money O Interactions and ows between places affect the lives of people in regions 9 Dynamic elements of such ows within and among regions inside a country affect each region s prominence Q Nodes Places where ows begin intersect or end gt Making and Remaking Regions I Intersections and ows between places produce dynamic aspects of regional evolution I People Create Regions 0 The visuals of a region determine on the characteristics given by its inhabitants or coverage by the media the government and advertising 0 Regions and their boundaries may change over time instigated by shifting ows of people information capital technology or political ideas I People Remake Regions 0 Individuals and small groups often in uence the course of changes in regions and countries I Regions Interact with Other Regions 0 No region is an isolated entity 0 The world s remotest regions are affected by external demands in uence of settlers and visits by enterprising tourists 0 Some places affect surrounding regions by their role in funneling trade through narrow oceanroute thoroughways I Regions Are Used by Those in Power 0 Countries such as the US and the BRIC countries of Brazil Russia India and China all exert power and in uence on the other countries within their world regions 14 Regions and Globalization 0 v Two geographic trends help us understand what makes regions unique as a result of increasing ows among them and gt Globalization and Localization I Globalization the increasing level of interconnection among people and places throughout the world 0 Involves integration and exchange of capital tech and info across country borders I Localization Increasing or strengthening of local traditions in resistance to the global diffusion of human practices I The rapid and Widespread acceptance of the globalization theme by politicians media special interests and academia has created confusion over precise meanings gt Facets of Globalization I Increasing global connections promote intensi ed ows of ideas goods and people worldwide 0 The spread of ideas technologies crime and diseases 9 Most poor countries wish to modernize making use of technology transfer but forces that ease that ow can spread drug trafficking and diseases such as HI VAIDS o Flows of goods and services 9 Trade in raw materials food products manufactured goods and services increased rapidly over the past centuries ex supermarket foods clothing electronic products vehicles 0 Human mobility 9 Vacations displacements into refugee camps executives commuting worldwide unemployed workers being attracted to wealthier countries 0 Access to and availability of images and messages through print TV lm and Internet media 9 The Internet amp World Wide Web enable international and local firms political groups and leisure interests to have exposure outside the control of individual countries 0 Uncontrollable negatives 9 Global spread of ideas instant comm faster transp amp resultant lower levels of control by countries lead to an expansion of arms drugs and traficking gt Facets of Localization I Local voices and identities have become more con dent in reacting to globalization forces in the last 30 years maintain and enhance differences among places 0 Political nationalism O Seeks to preserve the uniqueness of countries groups of countries and smaller regions within countries 0 Separatist groups 9 Those within countries and across borders who seek local sovereignty 0 Customs and practices O Preserve local identities despite globalizing forces ex Western pop music 0 Ethnic and religious differences 9 Significant factors in forging or challenging community and international relationships 0 Resistance to the visible economic penetration 9 That of global capital and Westernstyle business practices around the world affects many local communities who may rebel against a perceived intrusion into local traditions I Localization commonly involves political economic social cultural and environmental factors increasingly dif cult to establish total isolation from global in uences I Some commentators are optimistic about the ability of global processes to improve the lot of poor countries gt Measuring Globalization I A globalization index provides a measure of the degree to which a country is involved in global forces One approach ranks countries by four groups of data sets 0 Political engagement indicators 9 Including membership in international organizations personnel and financial contributions to UN Security Council missions etc 0 Technology measures 9 Number of Internet users Internet hosts and secure servers for encrypted transactions 0 Personal contact indicators 9 International travel and tourism international telephone traffic crossborder nongovernmental remittances and personal fund transfers 0 Economic integration measures 9 Trade ows portfolio capital ows foreign direct investment and investment income 15 Major World Regions 393 World region a group of countries linked by cultural political economic and natural criteria global and local linkages help to de ne the major regions gt Europe I Source of many Western political cultural and economic trends I Region is de ned as those countries that are members of the European Union I Marked by maritimein uenced midlatitude environments and advanced industrial economies I Strong Christian in uence I Variety of languages spoken gt Russia and Neighboring Countries I Includes all countries that emerged from the breakup of the former Soviet Union except for Estonia Latvia and Lithuania I Empire extended European cultures into central and northern Asia incorporating a wide range of people cultures and languages I Through much of 1900s Communist government subdued longterm clashes between Christian and Muslim faiths I Marked by former Soviet Republics trying to nd their political bearings as sovereign states in a region dominated by the growing wealth and global in uence of Russia gt East Asia I Includes Japan the Koreas Mongolia and a resurgent China I Among the world s most successful countries in recent economic growth challenging the dominance of the US and Europe I Leading global supplier of rare earth minerals and investor in green technologies gt Southeast Asia I Includes independent kingdom of Thailand and former European colonies of Myanmar Malaysia and Singapore Indonesia the Philippines Vietnam Laos and Cambodia and East Timor I Engages in intense economic competition with one another while simultaneously participating in economic trade blocs to strengthen the region s global position gt South Asia I Over 1 billion people live here I Large numbers of materially impoverished people exist alongside growing technocratic and wealthy elites Experiences clashes between Islam Hinduism and Buddhism British Empire s past occupation brough slow economic growth before the increases of foreign trade and investment in the 1990s gt Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia I Characterized by its position at the junction of Europe Africa and Asia I Birthplaces of Judaism Christianity and Islam with the third most practiced I Presence of Jewish Israel in predominantly Muslim region raises cultural economic and political tensions that result in continuous hostilities I World s largest oil reserves acute water shortages gt Africa South of the Sahara I Includes many ethnic groups I Contains great mineral riches underdeveloped economic potential I Population is among the world s most materially deprived today gt Australia Oceania and Antarctica I AustraliaNew Zealand are the region s most materially wealthy and Westemized countries I South Paci c islands are challenged by lack of locally held global political or economic in uence I Antarctica is increasingly visited by tourists and scientists yet there is no permanent resident population gt Latin America I Many political and economic issues that relate to the region s history of colonization and as the nearest neighbor of the United States I Indigenous peoples reduced by Spanish and Portuguese colonization of Latin America gt North America I World s materially wealthiest region containing the only current world superpower the United States I Indigenous population signi cantly diminished through con ict with the new settlers and by European diseases


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