GDHWeekTwoNotes.pdf ART 216
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Toni Ritchie on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 216 at Illinois State University taught by Archana Shekara in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Graphic Design History in Art at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Johann Gutenberg Born in Mainz Germany Inventor of moveable type textura type style popular because of scribes Gutenberg s Bible 12082 pages 11 34 inch by 14 inch book 9 pages had 40 lines 10th page had 41 lines the rest of the pages had 43 lines 30 books made from vellum the rest were made out of paper 290 different characters where made for the book One page contained at least 2194 characters Psalter in Latin contained the rst logo printers marker rst color printing in Europe Watch video The Machine that Made Us with Stephen Fry Other designers to know Nicholas Jenson 1420 1480 Jenson who was initially serving as an apprentice at the Paris mint and later as Master of the Royal mint of Tours France was highly skilled cutter of dies used for striking coin He established Venice s second press Jenson is widely known as the greatest typeface designer and cutter rests on the type rst used in Eusebius s De preparation evangelica which presents the full roman type design Part of the in uence on Jenson s fonts is their extreme legibility his ability to design space between the letters and within each form to create an even tone throughout the page that helped him created a mark in history He was bestowed the title of Count Palatine for his religious publications by Pope Sixtus IV before his death Claude Garamond 1480 1561 Garamond was the rst punch cutter to work independently of printing rms His roman typefaces were designed with such perfection the French printers in the sixteenth century were able to print books of extraordinary legibility and beauty He elimi nated Gothic styles from compositors cases all over Europe Garamond established an independent type foundry to sell cast type ready to distribute into the compositors case This was a rst step away from the all in one scholar publisher typefound er printer bookseller that had begun He allowed closer word spacing and a harmony of design between capitals lowercase letters and italics To maintain their status as standards of typographic beauty and readability William Caslon 1692 1766 Caslon opened a shop for bookbinding using his engraving skills For sixty years his font was virtually all English printing and soon followed English colonialism around the world Carson s font was introduced to North America and was used extensively including the nal printing of the Declaration of Independence His font owed its popularity and appeal to an outstanding legibility and sturdy texture that made them comfortable to the eye he increased the contrast between thick and thin strokes by making the former slightly heavier Caslon s fonts have a variety in their design giving them an uneven rhythmic texture that adds to their visual interest and appeal he worked in a tradition of Old Style roman typographic design John Baskerville 1706 1775 Baskerville was an innovator who broke the prevailing rules of design and printing in the books he produced as his press in Birmingham England All facets of the bookmaking process He designed cast and set type improved the printing press conceived and commissioned new papers and designed and published the books he printed He was an established master writing teacher stonecutter and a manufacturer of japanned ware He was an artist who wanted to control all aspects or book design and production He represented the zenith of the transitional style bridging the gap between Old Style and modern text design His letters possessed a new elegance and lightness Baskerville s type was wider the weight contrast between thick and thin strokes is increased and the placement of the thickest part of the letter is different Baskerville s serifs owed smoothly out of the major strokes and terminate as re ned points While his italic letters resembled master handwriting Baskerville opted for the pure typographic book with wide margins and a liberal use of space between letters and lines were used around his magni cent alphabet Baskerville preferred using perfect alignment between the inch thick brass platen and the smooth stone press bed Giambattisa Bodoni 1740 1813 Bodoni was given the charge of being the Ferdinand Duke of Parma s private printer His initial design in uence was Fournier Ie Jeune Bodoni redesigned the roman letterforms to give them a more mathematical geometrical and mechanical appearance Bodo ni reinvented the serifs by using sharp right angles and eliminating the the tapered ow of the serif into the upright stroke in Old Style roman Bodoni s ideal design was cleanness good taste charm and regularity In Bodoni s page layouts where open simple page design with generous margins wide letter and line spacing and large areas of white space along with appearance of generous leading