Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes Bio 208
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie McLaughlin on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 208 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Ed Draper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Cell Biology in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Bios 208 Chapter 1 Week 1 Notes Biology natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms including their structure function growth evolution distribution and taxonomy Levels of Biological Organization Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Organ amp organ systems Tissues Cells Organelles 0 Molecules l 39 l quot Fquot If F l f p L Emergent property any unique property that emerges when component objects are joined together in constraining relations to construct a higherlevel aggregate object a novel property that unpredictably comes from a combination of two simpler constituents EX taste of salt in an emergent property because of the sodium and chlorine that it is made of Cell biology branch of biology that studies cells their physiological properties their structure the organelles they contain interactions with their environment their life cycle division death and cell function Done both at a microscopic and molecular level Cell theory a cell is smallest and simplest unit that displays I properties of life Prokaryotic cells small and simple DNA is I in the nuclei Eukaryotic cells large and compleX DNA is in the nuclei Cell division produces two daughter cells that are genetically identical Di erentiation produces cells with different properties and capabilities Genetic code virtually identical in all organisms The Central Dogma Translation Protein 39 Transcri nn 39 5 Centrl dngm of mnlenul r biology Energy metabolism Bios 208 Life on Earth 2 great themes 1 Diversity there are an incredible number and variety of organisms which can be distinguished based on size appearance habitat nutrition reproduction and so on 2 Unity all organisms share many features which is most apparent at the levels of cells and molecules a F lagella cilia are used to move a cell or to move material past cells the structure of agella in all eukaryotes is identical has been hypothesized that the ancestor of all eukaryotes had this type of agellum which is a homologous trait Evolution eXplains both unit and diversity of life is I core theme of biology it is exquisitely eXplains both the unity and diversity of life theory of evolution is the only available eXplanation for life that is based on supported by vast amounts of data allowed from many fields since 1859 and earlier as for any scientific theory Charles Darwin keen observer of nature since childhood naturalist on the HMS beagle 183136 studied species properties life histories and physiology of many organisms studied artificial selection in domesticated animals wrote On the Origin of Species by Means on Natural Selection 1859 contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors that differed from them descent with modification natural selection is an evolutionary mechanism for descent with modification individuals that are most fit to a particular environment are most likely to survive the struggle for eXistence natural selection successful individuals pass on these favorable traits to their offspring inheritance Descent with Modification unity in the kinship among species that descended from a common ancestor diversity in the modifications that evolved as species branched from their common ancestors Domains 1 Bacteria gt prokaryotic organisms single cell organisms 2 Archea gt prokaryotic organisms single cell organisms 3 Eukarya a Kingdom Plantae Bios 208 b Kingdom Fungi C Kingdom Animalia d Kingdom Protista gt contains about 9 kingdoms and are single cell eukaryotic organisms Unity of Life common features of all cells DNA is genetic material conserved genetic code ribosomes synthesize proteins conserved enzymatic pathways ATP is universal energy currency Observations of Patterns 0 Homology trait that is similar in extant currently living organisms because it also was present in the common ancestor of these organisms forelimb of mammals DNA and protein sequences 0 Traits can see this in living organisms and can see direct evidence in fossil records Analogous structures are structurally or functionally similar due to adaptation to similar environmental pressures or challenges but evolutionary biologists strive to distinguish between homology traits similar to common origin and analogy traits similar due to separate evolution in response to similar environmental challenges Progressive changes Science tries to eXplain and understand the natural world Process of coming up with natural eXplanations of phenomena The Scientific Method 1 Observations Questions Why What How 3 Hypotheses are possible eXplanations they must be testable and falsifiable because science can never prove anything a That which is not disproven is accepted to be provisionally true 4 Predictions and tests if X then y EXperiments must include controls test only one or a few variables give reproducible results Discard disproved hypotheses refine others 6 Theory is a hypothesis that has been tested extensively without being disproved has broad application and strong predictive power EX gravitational theory cell theory theory of evolution 7 Hypotheses based on faith belief religion hunches gut feelings or urban legends are not testable or falsifiable so they are not science U W Some terms to know Bios 208 Matter has mass takes up space Element substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions Atom the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Compound two or more different elements in a fixed ratio Molecule elements joined by covalent bonds have fixed ratios and have specific bonding patterns Elements of Life about 2025 of the 92 elements are essential to life so these are the essential elements carbon hydrogen and nitrogen make up 96 of living matter most of the remaining 4 consist of calcium phosphorous potassium and sulfur trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities Atomic number at protons in the nucleus a neutral atom has an equal number of protons and electrons Atomic mass in daltons or AMU protons neutrons Atomic Number V 39 anrnton 2 a v Nluxmher Zj Elemental H e L 7 Atomic Mass in amw Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons same atomic number and different number of neutrons different atomic mass many are unstable decay break apart which releases smaller particles plus energy decay of isotopes occurs at a characteristic rate which defines its halflife Biological uses of Isotopes Carbon dating can determine when something died decay of unstable 14C Tracers are used in basic research and in medicine Cell killing good cancer radiation therapy bad bombs power plant accidents Bios 208