Biopsychology Week 5
Biopsychology Week 5
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Monica Stert on Friday May 2, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 05/02/14
429 VII Evolution and Genetics A Evolution heritable traits have variation natural selection of these traits correspond to success in certain environment reproductive success is the key 1 Evolution of physical traits and fossil records Darwin s finches 2 Higher intellect the bigger the brain size proportional to body relative size of cerebral cortex is predictive B Evolution of behaviors 1 Behaviors they are born with 2 Built in social behaviors like imprinting when ducklings hatch they form strong bonds with the first thing they see as mom for the rest of their life 3 Mating behavior selection process a Advertise one sex and intentions virility ex Peacock rook rooster behavioral characteristics courtship rituals b Different reproductive pressures have lead to sex differences 1 Monogamy most birds remain monogamous male and female may last for mating season or lifetime equal pressures trade off 2 Polygyny one male mates with many females mammalian characteristic offspring in womb of mother female can take care of self and baby but needs male to protect territory males looking to pass along traits to as many offspring as possible 3 Sexual dimorphism structural differences between sexes males are typically bigger than females 4 David Bussmale and female difference in social interaction when asked randomly by an attractive member of the opposite sex men agreed to sex 70 of the time while 0 of females did c We have a genetic code but our behaviors are dependent on environment and genetics C Studying the influence of our genes 1 Twin studies study heredity in humans a Monozygotic twins 100 overlap in genetic code b Fraternal twins just like any brother or sister 50 overlap c Adopted siblings 0 overlap d Concordance rate strength of relationship between genetic background and a particular phenotype 2 Transgenic animals a Knock out remove DNA for the gene or mutate the DNA so protein is not made b Knock in add in different DNA for a gene 3 Genotyping readout of DNA then correlated with certain traits D Genes length of DNA that is a code for making proteins regulating and functioning of cells in the body we have 25000 genes in the body 1 2 3 Nucleotide bases form in pairs adeninethymine guaninecytosine order of pairs determines gene Two copies of each gene are created one allele from mother one from father and packaged into chromosomes 23 for humans Genotype types of genesalleles that we have in DNA a Phenotype physical or behavioral traits that are expressed because of interaction with the environment b Genes can often relate to one characteristic most phenotypes however are due to many polygenic expressions of genes 4 Two different types of alleles a Dominant will always be expressed if you only have one b Recessive will show up only if two copies of recessive alleles are there c Homozygous two dominant or two recessive alleles d Heterozygotic one dominant and one recessive dominant always expresses itself 1 Ex Eye color Huntington s disease dominant around age 40 5 Gene expression a Creation of proteins 1 Transcription first phase of expression which DNA converts to RNA then transferred outside then synthesizes proteins 2 Translation RNA gives rise to sequence of amino acids at sites of ribosomes b Replication DNA code reproduces itself strip strand apart attracts new nucleotide bases 1 Mutation accidental gene alteration some are devastating most remain hidden so inbreeding is not a good idea some benefit an organism adaptive value naturally selected 6 Cell Division a Mitosis double chromosomes so when cell divides daughter cells have the right number of chromosomes b Meiosis one sex cell divides into two cells each with one chromosome of each pair gametes c Zygote full completement of chromosomes 7 Sex chromosomes xx female xy male a Sex linked traits 429 Vlll Hormones and Sex A The neuroendocrine system 1 Neurochemical signaling between tow neurons involves pointtopoint communication signal is passed immediately and terminates rapidly 2 Neuroendocrine release of hormones into blood stream that then travel to organs in periphery lasts longer a Glands functions and hormones 1 Pineal gland in brain reproductive maturing body rhythms melatonin sleepwake cycle 2 Pituitary anterior hormone growth posterior water salt balance vasopresin and oxytocin 3 Thyroid growth development metabolism thyroxine 4 Adrenal salt and carbohydrate metabolism emotional arousal corticosteroids 5 Pancreas sugar metabolism insulin 6 Gonads body development reproductionbehavior androgens estrogens b Tropic hormones influence the release of hormones from other glands The hypothalamus the ultimate regulator master of the master gland a Controls internal environment homeostasis regulates balance of water salt nutrients glucose sex hormones emotional arousal aggression and cortisol stress b Nuclei in hypothalamus medial preoptic area associated with male and female sexual behavior sexually dimorphic larger in heterosexual men than women or homosexual men Posterior pituitary gland a Oxytocin and vasopresin are synthesized in the nuclei of hypothalamus b Hormones then transported through pituitary stalk c Hormones released into general circulation from posterior terminal buttons d extension of hypothalamus Anterior pituitary gland not directly connected to hypothalamus a Hypothalamus releases hypothalamic inhibiting and releasing hormones b Flow to anterior pituitary c Make connections with new cells there then neurons release own hormones tropic d Indirect signaling system Sex steroids released of androgens testosterone and estrogens estradiol a Male steady state system 1 Releases follicle stimulating hormone luteinmizing hormone 2 Testes produce sperm and testosterone and other androgens 3 If levels of testosterone gets too high a response is triggered in the hypothalamus 4 Keeps a steady flow b Female cyclic 1 Hypothalamus releases hormones to anterior follicle and luteinmizing hormones 2 Ovaries have cycle of egg production 3 What stage body is make difference in estrogen and progestrin also have negative feedback loops 4 Can go updown with changes in behavior and mood
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