Psychology 330: Thinking
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This 2 page Reader was uploaded by Victor Flores on Friday May 2, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 05/02/14
0 Consequences of people not needing sleep Classmates voted on most creative answer and consensus was Would people be awake for all surgery Why gt More unusual less easy to come up with than most of the other answers Most of the answers involved more obvious consequences breakfast and bed industries would collapse days would blend together crime would go up stimulants would become less necessary people would work more hoursmight become overworked Surgery doesn t relate to our basic conception of sleep since anesthetics are needed to put the people to sleep but it involves sleep nonetheless The rest of the class was only talking about sleep as the natural process we experience every night The person who discussed surgery thought outside of this limited box gt The answer received some pushback though Is it a better answer because it involved outsidethebox thinking or is it worst because it didn t pertain to the question gt Difficult to de ne and measure creativity 0 Welldefined problems You know initial state goal state problem space where you are in space how close you are to goal E g The base rate taxi problem where you try to gure out the probability that a cab involved in an accident is blue when given the following information a 90 of the cabs in the city are Green and 10 are Blue b A witness identi ed the cab as Blue The court tested the reliability of the witness under the same circumstances that existed on the night of the accident and concluded that the witness correctly identi ed each one of the two colors 80 of the time and failed 20 of the time 0 Illdefined problem May not know what goal state is may not know how close you are to solution E g PSY 330 paper You won t ever know the true solution for the paper since the topic is so broad You don t know exactly what the goal is other than to make a compelling argument backed up with good evidence E g Name everything that is edible that is white It might be easy to name ower rice cheese etc but you can t tell from the instructions whether you ve completed the task How many white items are there How quickly should you list them Requires different type of thinking not System 2 Engage your brain 0 Creativity studies Guilford 1950 creativity is the ability to discover new unanticipated approaches to a problem aka divergent thinking gt Brick test people are given ve minutes to think of as many different uses for a brick The more uses you can think of the more creative you are Mednick 1962 creativity is the ability to discover new connections gt Remote association task think of a fourth word that is related to each of the rst three words Eg fourth word that connects off top tail is spin spinoff topspin tailspin Validity and reliability are two most important psychometric properties of a test especially for creativity Reliability Is the test going to consistently show the same data for the same person over time Eg if you re measuring height or intelligence you want both measurements to be the same no matter how many times you conduct tests on those two traits Validity when the test measures what it s designed to measure Wallas Four distinct phases we go through in creativity 1 2 3 4 Preparation When faced with ill de ned problem play around with the problem and try to nd paths to the solution you can eliminate Incubation People allowed to incubate lay aside issues for a period of time often came up with best solutions to problems Explanations for incubation gt Illusion gt Mental setforgetting gt Spreading activation Illumination moment when the new idea materializes Verification checking the new idea
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