Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes KNR 181
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KNR 181 at Illinois State University taught by Megan Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Kinesiology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
KNR 181 Chapter 1 Notes Anatomy is the study of the structures inside of the human body Physiology study of the functions that the human body can do 0 Often focuses on actions that occur at the cellular and molecular level 0 Uses principles of physics GrossMacroscopic Anatomy study of large structures in the human body Microscopic Anatomy study of small structures in the human body Developmental Anatomy structural changes that evolve over time Complementarity of Structure and function anatomy and physiology are inseparable because function re ects structure Chemical Level atomsIlmoleculesorganelles Cellular level cells smallest units of living things Tissues groups of similar cells that play the same role 0 Epithelium covers bodies surface lines cavities 0 Muscle movement 0 Connective supports and protects organs 0 Nervous internal communication by electrical impulses Organ has at least 2 tissue types that play a specific role for the body specialized functions Organ system level organs that work together to carry out a common goal Organismal level all structural levels working together Chemicalcellulartissueorganorgan systemorganismal Necessary Life Functions 0 Maintaining its boundaries so inside remains separated from outside 0 Movement eternal interaction internal movement 0 Responsiveness pain breathing sense 0 Digestion so that food can be broken down and made into usable resources 0 Metabolism so complex material is made to be simpler chemical reactions in body s cells state of change 0 Excretion so there is removal of waste products digestive urinary respiratory 0 Reproduction so that offspring are made 0 Growth Survival needs 0 Nutrients consumed in diet needed for energy 0 Oxygen needed for life chemical processing and breathing 0 Water most abundant chemical in body 5060 body weight 0 Temperature lower than 986slower metabolic reactions higher than 986faster metabolic reactions 0 Pressure effects how well we breathe and too much or too little can do damage Homeostasis ability to keep the body stable even when environment is changing 0 Receptor monitors the outside world and lets the control center know when there needs to be adjustments 0 Control center determines the response 0 Effector provides the control center with the material needed to carry out that response Negative Feedback output shuts off or reduces the strength of the stimulus causing the variable to change in the opposite direction of the initial change like a thermostat Positive Feedback response is accelerated proceeds in same direction as the initial change blood clotting contractions Anatomical Position body is upright with feet slightly apart palms face forward thumbs pointed away from the body right and left refer to the person not the observer Axial main parts of body head neck trunk Appendicular limbsappendages Sagittal plane vertical plane that divides body in left and right Median planmidsagittal sagittal plane that lies exactly in midline Parasagittal plane sagittal offset from midline Frontal planes divide body into front and back vertically Transverse plane horizontally from right to left dividing body into top and bottom Ventral body cavity contains internal organs called viscera or visceral organs 0 Thoracic cavity surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest 0 Abdominopelvic cavity dome shaped muscle important for breathing 0 Right upper quadrant left upper quadrant right lower quadrant left lower quadrant 0 Serous membrane thin membrane of walls of ventral cavity and outer surface of organs serous uid allows organs to slide without friction Integumentary system protects external covering prevents water from evaporating Skeletal system structure support Muscular system produces heat posture movement Nervous system responses Endocrine system hormone secretion Superior toward head up Inferior away from head down Anterior in front of body Posterior toward back of body Medial toward middle Lateral away from middle Intermediate between a more medial and more lateral structure Proximal closer to orgin of body part or point of attachment to limb to trunk Distal farther from orgin of attachment of limb to trunk Superficial toward or at body surface external Deep away from body surface internal
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