Lecture Notes Week 1 & 2
Lecture Notes Week 1 & 2 ANTH 161 001
Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Anthropology 161 Notes from Wk 12 08262015 Thursday 820 What is 0 Study of humanshumankind from perspective of all peoples through time 0 Understand the evolution of human culture amp biology o How we vary how we interact 0 Includes past present biology culture amp language 0 Four sub disciplines O 5 among human populations currentpast transmitted person to person a Includes social systems economic systems marriage customs religion amp philosophy Habitation Procurement El Resource gathering Processing Sacred Specialized El El El Unique purposes contained sites these quotobjectsquot Hearths walls living oors a objects made amp used by past El El El El peoples How did people live at their sites Why people lived like they did Why are some cultures more complex What caused the shift to agriculture Study of the structure evolution amp usage of language in human societies amp its relation to culture is a set of writtenspoken symbols that refer to things peopleplacesconcepts other than themselves El Allow for the transfer of knowledge from one generation to the next Examines n Biological evolution of humans amp their ancestors n Biological variation within amp between individuals amp human populations n The relationship of humans to other organisms Tuesday 825 Biological Anthropology aka Physical Anthropology has two main factors 0 All the biological changes that have brought it to its present form 0 Genes 0 Biological makeup in uenced by environment Aspects of Biological Anthropology 0 Looking at Skeletal biology variation health diseases etc among past populations 0 Study of bones 0 Study of Apes 0 Looking at living people and their health 0 Study of ancient humanshumanoids remains of humanlike beings amp evolutionary past of humankind What makes us human 0 Walking on two feet 0 Why can primates do that then 0 Not sharpened against premolar o Objects humans use to manipulate their environment includes complicated tools needed for survival 0 Now scientists realize other species do this as well 0 Primates do this as well 0 Most important L Charles Darwin 1831 22 years old amp hired as a naturalist on the 0 observed the physical characteristics of nches amp other animals were believed that adaptation was crux of evolution o If an organism has a certain feature that will allow it to survive to reproductive age it will pass it along to offspring amp so on to their offspring etc European world view in the past 0 A world of 0 Everything stayed the same nothing changed 0 in species 0 How the species was then was how it will always be 0 Explained farther down in the notes 0 Start to see things appear amp go extinct which constituted deep time Copernicus Wrote 1543 0 Earth is not the center of all things celestial but circulating the sun 0 There are also more than 1 sun in the universe 0 This greatly challenged period beliefs 0 from being of all God s creation 0 But they remained the Archbishop James Ussher Wanted to know F o Assessed that it was created quotupon the entrance of the night proceeding the Natural Philosophy amp Early Natural History 0 World began in World o In understanding nature naturalists were investigating God s work 0 Most early Naturalists were theologist as well Darwin Archbishop Ussher etc Great Chain of Being GCB 0 Species unchanging no extinction Everything that can exist already does 0 All creatures created by God 0 Predominant paradigm for understanding life until Darwin John Ray Coined term Corolus Limaeus 17071778 0 Wanted to document God s creations in an organized system based on GCB 0 Created formal classi cation system taxonomy Perfected used today 0 homo sapien Kept a to compare 0 mm ML o If specimen was Distinguished species by diagnostic unique feature 0 class order genus species 0 now a days kingdom amp Phylum come before those Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon 17071788 Disagreed with Limaeus Wrestled with simulatrities of humans amp apes Believed planet was older than 6000 years o 36 volumes 0 described all living things everything known about the natural world 39 believed in saw GCB as a continuum believed in 0 environment acted directly on organisms through quotorganic particlesquot 0 he couldn t describe the mechanism for change branded a heretic by church 0 forced to recant 1751 Dodo makes its mark 0 indigenous to Mauritus discovered 1581 0 Easy prey tasted bad 0 Human arrival introduced new animals in ecosystem that plundered their nests Humans destroyed the forests they inhabited extinction by 17005 Baron Georges Cuvier 17691832 Father of 0 1st to document extinctions of ancient animals international o rejected their existence because it implied evolution 0 most popular proponent of life forms moved into other areas 0 explained why fossil records for a region show abrupt changes in species explanations based on Catastrophism explained no instant change Thursday 827 17261797 Father of 1785 suggested an o quotno vestige of a beginning no prospect of an endquot 17311802 1794 o Espoused evolution was what he called it through poetry 0 Life on earth had been evolving for Life evolved from a single common ancestor forming quotone living lamentquot quotthe strongest amp most active animal should propagate the species which should thus be improvedquot 17441829 0 French Naturalist Believed microscopic organisms appeared spontaneously from inanimate materials than as their o due to the creatures adapted to 0 Also believed creatures could develop new organs or change old ones as a result of their usedisuse o lgnored until Darwin 0 Importance o Changes in traits are inherited 17661834 0 English demographer amp political economist concerned about decline of living conditions in 19th c England o believed it was God s way of preventing man from being lazy Darwin read Malthus Favorable variations would tend to be preserved amp unfavorable ones to be destroyed Results of this would be the start of a new species 17971875 0 British geologistlawyer 0 Change is the only constant 0 Provided evidence for Hutton s idea of uniformitarianism Erosion earthquakes etc 0 Change gradualslow gradualism Cuvier was wrong 18021871 Anonymously published 0 Revealed as author posthumously 1884 0 Darwin remarked that Vestiges was important in the public acceptance of his theories 0 Ministry natureminded person or vicar 0 BA in 1831 geology 0 Quit med school at 22 0 Could already name 1000 s of species of plants insects reptiles invertebrates birds amp mammals Family opposed inappropriate for budding clergyman eventually let him go 0 Darwin had to pay his own way o It was the making of him Discovered giant ground sloth fossils in Argentina wondered if extinct forms related to living ones 0 Did not recognize signi cance until back in England 1837 0 Worked out theory much later Turtles amp nches were key evidence Meticulous letters amp specimens he sent home made him an established scientist at 27 years old in 1836 thanks to mentor amp professor o Selftrained but one of the best trained in the world On the Origins of Natural Selection Knew about fossils amp extinct animals Knew about amp in uenced by o Read amp in uenced by Ideas Developed theory in o In face of opposition
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