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by: Jessica_Kline

GEOL101notes.pdf GEOL 101-01

GPA 3.78
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson

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About this Document

Lots of vocab, not much else since it is only week one.
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101-01 at Ball State University taught by Kirsten N. Nicholson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth's geological environment in Science at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 08/29/15
GEOL 101 0824 0826 and 0828 Prelude Geologists people who study the earth Geology the study of the earth Environmental geology speci c uses of geological information to solve con icts in the environment Earth System all the things that form the Earth and all its features Thermal energy the result of atoms moving rapidly Temperature the measure of warmth to a certain standard Heat thermal energy that is transferred from one object to another Radiation heat transported through electromagnetic waves Conduction the transmission of heat through atom in an object or atoms of a different object that are touching Convection the ow of heat within an object boiling water Convective cells the path of ow of convection Advection when a heated substance pours into the cracks of another substance which causes the other substance to heat up Scienti c method a sequence of steps for analyzing problems in a way that leads to veri able results Hypothesis a possible explanation that is tested many times in many different ways until one result is found as the result of every test Shatter cones small cone shaped cracks Theories hypotheses that are supported by lots of strong evidence Scienti c laws statements that describe an entire speci c relationship or phenomenon Chapter 1 Universe all of space and the matter and energy within it Cosmology the study of the overall structure and history of the universe Geocentric model the theory that earth sat still in the center of the universe while the moon and sun and planets and stars moved around it Heliocentric model the theory that stated that the sun was the center of the universe with the earth and everything else orbiting it Gravity the attractive force that objects exert on each other Energy the ability to do work Star an immense ball of incandescent gas that emits intense heat and light Galaxies massive groups of stars held together by gravity Solar System the gravitational pull of the sun on other objects that orbit around it Planet an object that orbits a star is roughly spherical and has pulled surrounding particles of matter into its orbit Terrestrial planets Mercury Venus Earth and Mars the smaller planets closer to the sun consisting of a rock shell surrounding a ball of metallic iron Giant planets Jovian planets Jupiter and Saturn gas giants and Uranus and Neptune ice giants Moon a sizable body that is locked into orbit around a planet Waves disturbances that transmit energy from one point to another through period motions Wavelength the distance between successive waves Frequency the number of waves that pass one point during a certain time interval Doppler effect the change on frequency as the source of a wave moves Red shift the Doppler effect that causes the light from a moving source to appear a red color as it moves away from you Blue shift the Doppler effect hat causes the light from a moving source to appear a blue color as it moves away from you Expanding universe theory the idea that the universe is continually spreading out Big Bang theory all matter and energy was packed into a point that exploded and began the universe Fission the process of an atom breaking apart into two atoms Radioactive elements atoms tat spontaneously undergo ssion Fusion the process of smaller atoms combining to form larger atoms Nebulae atoms and molecules that formed into patchy clouds after the Big Bang Protostar a ball of gas that is under so much pressure that it heats and begins to glow Supernova a giant explosion that blasts much of the star s matter out into space Stellar nucleosynthesis the process that forms the elements needed to form stars Stellar wind the stream of atoms emitted from a star throughout its lifetime Nebular theory the theory that states that planets moons asteroids etc were formed from the attened outer disk that did not form the star Protoplanetary disk the outer part of matter that did not form a star Volatile materials that can exist in the earth s surface Refractory materials that melt at extremely high temperatures but are condensed to dust sized particles in the cold of space Planetesimals blocks of matter that coalesced to form bodies that are about lkm in diameter Protoplanets planetesimals that drew in other matter to grow bigger to be near the size of today s planets Differentiation the process of protoplanets and large planetesimals developed different layers Meteorites solid objects falling from space that landed on a planet Meteor the glowing streak of a meteorite that has enough friction with earth s atmosphere to heat and vaporize Magnetic eld the region affected by the force from a magnet our magnetic eld around earth serves as a sort of shield from space Dipole a magnetic eld that has two poles Atmosphere an envelope of gas consisting of 78 nitrogen 21 oxygen and 1 other gasses Sediment materials like sand and gravel where the particles were not stuck together Bathymetry the variation in the elevation of the ocean oor Mineral a solid natural substance where atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern Metal a solid composed of metal atoms Alloy a mixture containing more than one type of atom Melt when solids become hot and transform into a liquid Volatiles materials at easily transform into gas at the relatively low temperatures of the earth s surface Silica the most common type of minerals found in the earth containing silicon and oxygen Crust the not very dense top layer of the earth like an eggshell Mantle a denser solid underneath the crust like an egg white Core the very dense substance underneath the mantle like the egg yolk Earthquake an episode where the ground shakes Geothermal gradient the rate of change of the temperature as we go deeper towards the earth s center Moho where the crust shakes more Violently deeper in the crust during earthquakes which is the base of the crust Upper mantle from the bottom of the crust to a depth of 660km Lower mantle from 660 to 2900km Transition zone where the crust transitions to the mantle between 400 and 660km Lithosphere the outer layer of the earth that does not owers easy os the rest of the middle of the earth Asthenosphere the portion of the mantle where rock begins to ow 3 types of rocks 1 i gneous rocks formed from melts volcanic rocks 2 metamorphic rocks that have been altered by chemicals pressure or temperature 3 sedimentary loose bits of rock sand gravel dirt


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