Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Alexandra Lord on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art 275, Cjs 307, Geo 207, Mat 113, Phi 101 at Illinois State University taught by M. Duncan-Flowers, S. Kethineni, A. Bloom, J. Cier, D. O'Connell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see World Arts:Visual in Art at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Art 275 World Arts Week 2 Notes Persians were located in the East The Byzantines created their own empire was the first capital of the first ruling dynasty am as cgus 9 Known as the Umayyad Dynasty 39 The was located outside of Jerusalem 9 Located on Mount Moriah Temple Mount quotFarthest Mosque 9 Rebuilt by the Umayyad 9 Mosque was destroyed many times by earthquakes 9 Mosque is mentioned in the Qur an was the new caliph 9 Created tradition of going to see the Dome of the Rock 9 Pilgrims go to the Dome of the Rock near Jerusalem 9 It is believed that the footprints of the prophet Muhammad were left on the rock 9 Pilgrims that journeyed to see the rock would take a piece of the rock with them 0 This made it so that they had to build barriers around the rock to keep pilgrims from taking pieces of the rock 9 Has an inner and outer dome made of wood 9 Today covered with copper plates for a gold appearance before it was covered with lead which gave a white appearance gt The dome has 9 The outside is decorated like the inside of a Byzantine Church s inside 9 Built by ByzantineSyrian craftsmen with Muslim directors 9 By the 16th century it was retiled and restored 9 The inside is still the original 0 Used to cover the walls 9 Grilled windows let in light and air while still protecting the building 0 Supports the drum and the dome o Create a The upper walls and ceilings are made of painted 4 wood panels 0 All unique designs that are gilded and shaped 4 The plant motif is the dominant design in this building 0 Various paintings of plants 4 The Dome of the Rock houses the earliest surviving examples of Kufic Script F 9 The walls are outlined with passages from the Qur an It is said that Jerusalem will be the 9 It has Residential Rooms 9 Windowless Rooms 9 The First mosque oriented for Mecca is in the south part of the building 9 Palm FranzShade and Protect the building l lOmetles r I Men go into the mosque 9 Founded and built by Umayyad Caliph AlWalid 9 Syria 705714 o Hypostyle prayer hall was the first style 9 Baysq ua re space 4 9 Porticoes in the courtyard 9 Fountains for ritual cleansing 0 One or more per courtyard There was a need for a new mosque because they were sharing a church 9 Tore down the Church and Temenos Aramean Temple was taken over by Romans They reserved the shrine ofJohn the Baptist The aisles of the prayer hall were made of monolithic columns and capitals from old Roman buildings 9 Elevated the ceiling to let in light with little columns on top of the larger columns 0 This made it more lofty 9 The inside is made of Byzantine glass mosaic The courtyard fountain and Minaret are paved with marble 9 Outside is carved with Byzantine glass mosaics 9 In 1893 there was a terrible fire that burned and destroyed all of the mosaic on the interior and some parts of the exterior 0 Some of the exterior made it through the fire The main entrance to the Prayer Hall has a facade which has the best preserved remnants filled with landscape images All of the interior designs of the building are of Trees and Rivers 9 No animals or people 0 Scholars debate over the fact that there are no animals or people but rather only landscapes 9 In 750 there was agitation and was overthrown by the Umayyad o This was a massacre with only 1 survivor I The Prince 9 Founded in 784 by Abd alRahmanl o Umayyad Prince 756788 I Built a great mosque in Cordoba 9 Emir of AlAnadalus Muslim Spain 9 These people were the first to use aroma therapy eat lettuce use toothpaste etc 9 The Bishop built a Gothic Cathedral inside the Mosque 9 The mosque was built in a traditional style Hypostyle 0 Easy to expand In the 10th century there was Caliph Rivalry The original had 2 arches per support 9 Large arch on top with a smaller arch beneath 9 Small columns 0 Creates pillars 9 Everything varied in height 0 To fix this they used I This adjusted the size variation The arches of the Superstructure have a slight circular shape 9 Called quothorseshoe arches 9 These became a motif 9 These arches are used throughout the building 0 Used as an Ablaq masonry technique I Creates a striped pattern in the arches by alternating the colors of the stones I This was the first time this technique was used The became an octagonal room 9 It has marble and mosaics throughout 9 Has a horseshoe arch entrance 9 Colonets are inserted in the corners 9 There are recreated Voussoirs with mosaics 9 Customary to recreate rectangular frames 0 Inscriptions are written on these frames 9 Plant designs are in the mosaics 9 The marble is hand carved in arabesque o Gives it an infinite design I They can come in either plant or geometric shapes Along the side of the Mihrab are interlaced polylobed cusped arches 9 This means that there are many arches inside of one large arch The Mihrab dome is a transition space with stucco decoration 9 The colonets are used for springing of ribs 0 These create an octagonal design by interlacing the ribs 9 These support the cupola o This gives it a flower like design 0 These have concave flutes 9 These are all covered with a mosaic 9 There is an inscription at the base of the dome o The inscription comes from the Qur an I quotThe Throne Verse 9 Established in 1238 by Muhammad 9 Founded the Nasrid Dynasty 9 Located on spur of Sierra Nevada Mountains 9 This is known as the last hurrah in Spain 9 This palace is one of two surviving today 0 This one survives as a museum 9 The Christian Crusaders pushed out the Muslims 9 The red clay that runs along the walls gave it the name quotThe Red Fort 9 This is a small palace that has a fortress 0 It grew over time into a mini city with towers and 6 palaces within the walls Only 2 survived 0 There is a medieval Islam Center I Has beautiful gardens 9 Is one survived palace with a tower in back 9 Stucco decoration and tile throughout 9 Served as an administrative center 9 Built by Muhammad V between 13541391 9 Used as a pleasure palace and entertainment center 9 Has stucco decoration 9 Has twin columns that hold up the arches 9 There is a fountain with lions supporting the basin 0 Has a poem engraved around the rim of the fountain 0 Lions are very ancient and loyal motifs I They symbolize power and victory I The lion theme is evocative of King Solomon 0 King Solomon is regarded as a model for an ideal king 9 Has marble floors 0 Made of stone wood stucco ceramic o Laid out in layers to make designs
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