China 1 notes
China 1 notes His 104A02
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to His 104A02 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Kennedy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of East Asia in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
China 1 Notes Cambridge Illustrated History China Second Edition by Patricia Buckley Ebrey pg 1037 instead of looking up to gods the Chinese looked at intelligent human beings which transformed them to be civilized Fu Xi domesticated animals and invented the family Shen Nong invented plough and hoe Huang Di invented bow and arrow boats carts ceramics writing silk Yao devised calendar and rituals selected Shun as successor instead of son and married 2 Yaos daughters Shun appointed Yu to tackle problem of oods and later succeeded Shun and divided realm into 9 regions and when he died people turned to his son instead of other successor establishing precedent hereditary dynastic rule so he and his son were first kings of Xia dynasty lasting 14 rulers Overthrown when King J ie was replacednew dynasty the Shang lasted 30 rulers armies of Zhou overthrew them Yellow River Rises north in far western highlands makes sharp turns through the northern deserts ows swiftly from north to south through hilly area of loess turns abruptly eastward and spreads out yellow with silt between banks empties into the sea prone to ooding silt builds up so create dykes to keep river in its course Many cities of civilization people worked together Has silt when airborn loess Steady source of water Flood plane Farming Build dykes to control river Irrigation draining marshy land Live near heresocial development technological advancement Appoint people to do specific jobs Droughts Shallow because of silt not navigable huge course changes due to silt and manipulation water diversionengineering Yangzi River River greater volume of water rises in Tibetan highlands crosses the mountains encircling Sichuan bash moves through gorges with cliffs ows eastward 1000 miles to sea Pacific Ocean boat travel So much more rainfall 60 in per year No silt 0 Navigable 0 Irrigation 0 Fertilizer 0 Longer growing season in south north is colder atter more arid growing season is shorter grow wheat and millet north of yellow riverrainfall too light for unirrigated agriculture less than 20 in a year ood and drought more frequent than south region with Yangzi River is warmer and wetter than north most of it stays green all year about 60 in of rainfall a year suited for rice and to double cropping Chinese history began after end of last ice age 10000BC by 5000BC Neolithic cultures with agriculture pottery villages textils emerged cultivating crops allows denser and more permanent settlements pottery and textils make life much more comfortable and convientent with transporting water and storing social skills social organization Hemudu south of Shanghai wooden houses on stilts blackish pottery with geometric designs weaving wooden toolstechnological level of them was already higher than North American tribes in 17th century north China could not plant rice did millet and cut it with stone sickles crude pottery bowls jars tripids decorated with cord or comb impressions sheepcattle in north water buffalo and cattle in south and both areas had dogs and pigs in west Yangshao 5000 to 3000BC burials were simple and pottery was decorated with pained geometric designs painted in red and black spirals diamonds other shapes in east Liaoning province to Shanghai pottery was rarely painted more elaborate forms appeared including tripods pedestalled bowls cups adding handles lids gobletsIritualsfeastingsacrifices burials elaborate production of jade 30002000BC there was increased contact between these regional cultures cooking tripods spread west geometric decoration spread east increased con ict metal used for weapons built huge walls chiefs human sacrificesign of power of religiousmilitary elites social differentiation expressed in burials many languages Shang dynasty 0 After 2000BC diverse Neolithic cultures in north emerged more complex bronze age civilizationllwriting metalworking domestication of horse class stratification stable politicalreligious hierarchy did not control a large part of China but in uenced a lot with its technology and decorations 5 successive capitals Shang kings ruled more than 2 centuries large palaces temples altars industrial areas bronze workers potters stone carvers artisians had armies on campaigns bronze tipped spears halberd s composite bows horse drawn chariots 0 Shang king played a role in worship of high god Di and the royal ancestors sole that justified his political powers his ancestors were best able to communicate with Di and among living he was best able to communicate with his ancestors so kingship passes down from elder to younger brother and father to son but never sister or daughter 0 Kings made many predictions or prayers often stopped to make sacrifices to local spirits of ancestors or gods 0 Royal burials people accompanied the rulers into their graves some were sacrifices some got coffins and bronze ritual vessels or ramps weapons ornaments others got nothing and were beheaded cut in 2 or put to death in other mutilating ways built massive burial chamber 0 Earliest evidence of full sentences is found on the oracle bones of late Shang used language directly ancestral to modern Chinese and used a written script that evolved into the standard Chinese logographic system still used today Lecture notes Pre history 0 Neolithic cultures neither left back any writings O Yangshao fortune telling pottery is geometric red black 0 Longshan pottery is black First Historical Dynasties 0 Shang dynasty O Metalworkingweapons O Orcal Bones start of written tradition 39 Contains earliest known Chinese writing 1400BCE if written on something else other than bone either never found yet or disintegrated I Fortune telling divination kings asking ancestors question ritual record conversation on this and then insert hole in bone and it would crackanswers from ancestors 0 Community recognize king had ability to communicate with ancestors and maybe common ancestor for community he is related to 0 Patrilineal kingship father to son 0 Written language political unification of China all share same writing system even different dielects O Shang societyhierarchial so gap between elite and non elite O I Tombs of elite buried with things need in afterlife I Human sacrifice I Commoners very simple burial I Elite had oors common people lived in dug out pits I Non elite use simple tools for farmers not advanced things I Raised armies I Public works projects water control irrigation I Kingguy with resources Women I King asked women ancestors about child birth and health I Northern Chinallwomen play greater role more spiritual I Not clear in Shang dynasty how women were viewed 0 Western Zhou Dynasty dynasty of conquest O O 0 Military leaders Kings created regional powers but appoint someone to governdefend them obligations to king but over time became more powerful and king weakened Stop human sacrifice Not use oracle bone as much Mandate of Heaven move away from ancestral believe heaven granted king to rule but had to rule with the best interest of the people to keep ruling
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