Lecture 1&2 Week 8.26-8.28
Lecture 1&2 Week 8.26-8.28 54054
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jada Winchester on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 54054 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Philip Jen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Bio_Sc 4500 Neurobiology in Biology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
EQ Please tell me the difference between neuroscience and neurobiology o Neurobiology definition Study of function of the organ molecular level cellular level or any level of the nervous system from biological perspective Neuroscience is more broad and is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the systems Q What is the function and structured unit of the nervous system 0 Building block of nervous system Neurongt is a Nerve cell specialized excitable cellgtions move back and forth through the membrane as the ions are charged particles According to chemical concentration ions moving from high to low depending on the distribution of concentration gradient move back and forth so that there will be a potential change with time with an uneven distribution TermBIG picture Action potential Q Describe the general process of action potential and synaptic process Term Synaptic transmission transmissions of information from one neuron the other Q What is the ionic basis underline the function of the action potential What does an animal cell contain 0 ER Nuclear and genetic material Golgi apparatus proteins lysosomes Plant cell is different in that it has a chloroplast and a vacuole o Neuron is different from an animal cell because it has special characteristics and excitability and is very characterized The arrangement in animal ER is very characterized The ER of the neuron in the animal cell can stand well with a Nissl stain nissl bodygtbody substance The stain can be very poor when neuron has suffered injury and is trying to synthesize protein for regeneration Nervous system is very complex but it can be simple Amoeba Protozoan onecelled organism protoplasmic material shows response and properties of irritability has no nervous systems but the nervous system is simple amoeba moves and invades but it does show positive and negative response to injury In humans the nervous system has evolved from simple to complex Q Why can I move very fast Nervous system of animal works very well due to the reflex arc Functional unit of the nervous system 0 Re ex arc o Consists of only two neurons sensory and synaptic Is to receive information express in the form of stimuli from the external and internal environment and after receiving it it has to convert to a language which is spoken by nervous system slow potentialfrequency fasthigh frequency action potential slow potential does not have a refractory period as they move very quickly are usually a polysynaptic neuron containing more than two Q How heavy is your brain 22 pounds Q What makes up this 22 pounds Glial cells cell body CSF cerebrospinal fluid soft tissue about half is neurons and half is glial cells lysosomes blood vessels Q How fast is the conduction of action potential along the axon fast 120 ms to 1mm Q Why is the conduction of an action potential moving at a different speed Why do some move very fast and some move slowly The need to respond to something very quickly What is the brain made of and what does it contain 0 o Neurons CSF glial cells neurons and glial cells blood vessels to supply oxygen lysosome o How fast is the conduction of action potential 0 o 120 msneeds to respond to particular stimuli quickly 0 The action potential active self explosive action potential Follows rule of all or none action potential is always preceded by slow local potential 0 Passive action potential 0 o Bioelectricity electricity occurring on surface on excitable membrane in medial scale Passive action potential moves to soma Active action potential moves toward dendrites The function of the ns is to receive info from expression of stimuli of external and internal environment and after receiving they have to convert it into a language in which is spoken by the nervous system 2 languagesgtslow potential slow frequency fast highfrequency action potential the difference between the two is the range of frequencies 0 Q What is the difference between the two 0 Where there is a stimuli there is always a slow potential but it does not always guarantee a slow potential it depends on the size of a slow potential that leads to an action potential the need to respond is due to need to survive one is low frequency and with no refractory period and the other is high frequency with a refractory period Cerebellum Contains cell pyramidal cellfires two types of action action potential Initial segment Action potential due to influx of calcium potential or sodium ion most rising due to influx of sodium ions Active cell explosive action potential it moves all or none where there is a stimulus there is always an action potential without a slow potential you do not receive an action potential First action potential recorded was from a plant algae Neurobiology VS Neuroscience CENTRAL INPUT S39f ulULlSl pQOCESqNG gtOU393LJTRESPONSE39 The black box w 39 39 quot39quot39quotquotvquotquot i m a mw i wvii 7 7 1 The posted speed 2 and your speedometer limit is your u provides feedback The difference between the two is an error signal set point v i k J 39 V 1 1 quot I 39 39 t M 39 ff 1 3 if Vf f P v 1quot o f39 5 39lll 5 By using feedback information and 4 The brakes and accelerator the accelerator and brakes the I of the car are called the driver acts as a regulatory system iLcontrolled system I v d A mmzmomlt Dmommuqdumm Um mOjOZ O ZmuOM ltgtOZ Amv mmZWODlt Z mDZmCDOZMH Dmrgtlt 0 H Z O 7gtgtOZ 8v Umooommm gtzgtrltmw On ZmOmltgtjOZ a y 0 TC Um0mOZ 7992an OOltltgtZUH OmCIm A9 gcmnu Im mum 17m meOCAJOZ O Um0mOZ an wu V N my 20403 24m ZmCIOZWH wmrgtlt On UQOzoz system of the nervous to receive and to the or quotnuquot39 quotquot quot39quotquot a collecti on in structural unit t serve a I I ll i quotquotquotquot 39 quotquot39 39 39quot quot l What is neurobiology How does it differ from Neuroscienees Comparative nervous system of different organisms Comparative nervous system of different organisms Protoplamic response to external stimuli thltA Some Protozoa the ciliotes have fibers that coordinate the motion of the cilia mm musquot mom I Coelenterates simple aquatic animals Most of which are composed of only two layers of cells Ex inhowthisovidenooshowsthot the omeba responds to the environment ANTERIOR IONGITUDINAi sector or W What is the advantage of re ex arc n I u nervenet cehali zation 0 K re ex are All vertebrates have backbones surrouOnding the vital spinal cord What is the function at the backbone H 4 A a I V W quotr w P n V I 7 v 39 v Er vk L g C I r gt H 39 V v gt v T 1 a n v r v m su101 ssure VS gyrl I I o V o I 3939 Lquot 31quot4 II 39 4 Vr 399 i quotF o 39 gtL39 39 a 3939 Q39 4 39 A 39 l u I Dendrite Spine apparatus 4 gt Axon terminal Bouton Cell body Dendrile trunk Nissl substance R0 3 n endoplasmic reticulum Milochondrion Microtubule Neurofilament Lysosome Golgi body Smooth ER 200 nm 100 nm 7 P quot I T 1 50 nm l L l Microtubule Neurofilament Microfilame l Structural units Golgi neuron theory Nucleus Dendrite Node of Ranvier A multipolar neuron SCIIPWann With myelinated axon c39eus nerve cell a specialized A animal cell Myelinated 0quot Axon region ell MYE39ln Unmyelmated region A typical animal cell Cytoplasn1 39 r f 1 Pl39c a x I i I n11ane MOTONEUWN Golgi apparatus Perikaryon soma excluding the nucleus 7 lesl body substances 39 w is r 7 V t J n I a y k 7 mixr r Endoplasmlc reticulle N ucleus Motor neuron from spinal cord Jondritc Dendrites reception of input from other neurons Cell body metabolic and genetic or some control of the neuron Axon conductIOn of nerve impulses transport of metabolites to and from the cell body Axon l urkinie cell cerebellum A Presynaptic release of transmitters axon and other materials terminals which affect target cells CNS Periphery Axon Front cereb m Mural cell from olfactory bulb Pyramidal cellgmm gym N 13 Muscle Blood vessel Vertebrate Retinal Vertebrate Neurosecretory Brain quotWmquot sensory neuron bipolar cell motor neuron Pyramidal dorsal root neuron cell 39 39 ganglion cell 39vlllnxh 5 Ganglion coll 39 x Mxelinated axon y v t Nodes of Ranvier lnternode l J V q I L y 39 m Ii ted xon m m Mm C Un ye na a Glial sheath PseudcunipOIar Dend c branches gt Bipolar Dendrite b MultiPO39ar Dendrites Classification of neurons by morphology and function Appearance Where Found Anaxonal Sensoxjy Sy Sl C lS such as in the vertebrate eye or car P 3141 39 by U Ed Invertebrate imerncurons 111d lllOtOl neurons many vertebrate SCI x y ncu mm Monopolar Invertebrate sensory neurons Multipolar Vertebrate interncui ons and motor neurons some invertebrate sen CUI39OHS Bodian 1974 Biological transducers What are transducers Sensory receptors specialized neurons that serve as biological transducers that convert different forms of stimuli into measurable events in the nervous system ie The slow potential and the action potentials which are the two languages spoken by the nervous system Hu39 Imullvd xhdilt39 H1 nuzn mrw mu112ml mt tin le39ahHH39 l HM gvnvmtcs the me39ntll hdlugc if c Hml HIJ HM 1h39 1 Wthh 39 I39vr39m i hm nvmmummunh used that dvpvnd m hr pJV HQ vlm mm vzupcsz tht39v hau lKvn guru d Hnu39t n 39IJHHN d chignalion l tmnhal hangc HM IR In i kug m HH H t plmg llrl t nt LI HI thlh MM ihnic39x l39ll run 1 x AHMI w rrxmhui 1 I vruulum alum M hvnmul vpxp md u xp H39u HAHN nnz It i itur 11211IHI I39JIlhl lquot puntswmpth Pnh39HYlli 39 m mu l m uxuhmrn antxx39naptn puhmml x Hni m mind p1tvputtntli Ivmn RH H39mx l UHNH U mr y vmmzm punMm ha wnxnrv rvnlpturm bmught abnut by thu dppruprmh39 1mmlu A Short receptor Sensitive cilia How do you apply the terms T Mitochondria of receptor and generator Short distance Q potentials in these two lt 01 mm Nucleus different sensory receptors collateral l 880 Synaptic area A the receptor potential hair cells initiates Sensitive39ending in cutaneous the release of neurotransmitters that results in quotdeep Ssue generation of synaptic potential epsp Which serves as the generator potential to re 0 cell body lt2 2001 Smaller Assncrales Inc B Long receptor action potential Long distance in ganglion gt 01 mm B the receptor potential serves as the generator potentials to re action potentials Synaptic area 0 2001 Sinaucr Associates Inc u u M 39 IquotMg 392 gt c v 73 E 2 O Q 9 c f L 9 P C 4 Current 0 01 02 03 04 Time s threshold or excitability varies in different parts of the neuron The neural impulse is in electromemical event inwhich w brief ele 39tricah changes quotcallejdmjdfi39bnont n i l SWje P along the neural ibgn gatsv ipgities itr qheui 1prmet rsse c 39 N H 39 l 1 0 M quot n I m I3939 3939 a vx 39i lcr 224 mph Th 39 9h 09 ater semnang Isdgbi ie release of qarbop l lioxide quot x if t ff f R q l k g 1 7 vJ W 39 u i H 0 o W i 1 Initial segm t L a C222 f V V G C 1 l 39 threshold or excitability varies in different parts of the neuron The minimal stimulus strength that evokes 50 probability of firing of action potentials The neural impulse is an electrochemical event in which brief electrical changes called actibn potentials sweep along the neural fiber at velocities of about 100 meterssec or 224 mph These changes are ompanied by the release of carbon dioxide orthodromic vs antidromic impulse conduction anterograde vs retrograde movement of substance soma active VS passive l Ni 399 a l a 7 e r V 1 as quotquot v r 39 r b 39 1 8 y M a l t y 39 39 4 t v quot are l g l quot 39 5 t 39 1 h v 39 3 3 391 3 a 4 l t L i I t F A 39 o i L 7 a a y r 9 h A y A V n x n 9 l f 7 9 w 39 3 I 5 an a 39 dquot in in 1 H i W k J11 It L iaf v 4 tux 4 r 1 l 439 r l 870 l t It w r25 was 1 q 39 393 a a a H E n v l p s 1 A 1 r V 4 1 z w 1 39 It wk vi 39 Vquot at J quot 4551 mn gtzial439 3 t 739 aim 3 tl my 39 n PM 5 795 cult 3 soma vs axon action potential A Extracellular recording B Intracellular recording 2001 Sinauer Associates Inc 92 J 1 OVERSHOOT INFLUX 0F SODIUM IONS EFFLUX 0F POTASSIUM IONS SPIKE AFTERHYPERPOLARIZATION 100 MSEC Electrode tip amp Cell I Suction Cigaohm seal CELL A I39I39ACHIEI Suctiox D lNHOlJiCELI RECORDING l ull low Caz l ull I W E OUTSIDE OUT PATCH I C INSIDEOUT I I39l39 TH C Current tu voltage Convcrtcr scilloscopc D200 Sinauer Assooalas Inc Stimulating and recording of excitable membrane A B C Amplifier and V70 mv oscilloscope Amplifier and oscilloscope Extracellular electrode Microelectrode penetrates a cell membrane and records inside vs outside potential O Inse electrode Extracellular electrode 01 O I Voltage recorded by microelectrode mVl Nerve cell l O O Time gt Action poremial Extracellular spikes sooev l l ill ll L lOO msec I L iOO msec I L 100 msec I l 1 l Current generator 50 r l Record voltage changes during extracellular current ow a few mV Using catho e as the reference 0 EleCtrOtonlC POtential h e olarization Utward lntracellul r s ike yp rp giggiane quotIquot 39 39 39 ecpordstransmembrane potential 100 mV nward depolarization stnnulating amp record1ng electrodes Membrane gullllan IO 0 mv Current H Inward 10 msec Upward depolarization 10 msec Time Dawn mrd hyperpolarization Time 20 msec 1 g 40 msec I g80 msec I v 39 I l The envelope of the electrotonic potential and electric stimulus is not identical Why What does it mean Pro and can of intra and extracellular recording capacitor VS resistor v a of Ranvier If r I a r Schwann A 34 cell IniiEizSiEXsegment Mylinated g foon Axon Wm regon hillock hj W Myelln 39 y Unmyellnated x it 39 region motor neuron motoneuron Central Nervous Peripheral Nervous System CNS System PNS if 7 a in timi I 7 in 12 pairs of cranial 31 pairs of spinal nerves Q Sensory neuron w N Receptors Somatic motor neurgn Skeletal x muscles Autonomic motor neurons Smooth 39 muscle quot x Cardiac r4 muscle Autonomic ganglion Glands CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Blood vessel Gllal cell Astrocyte endfOO v I G BloodBrain barrier lnterneurons gt Glial cells Oligo dendrocytes pl if l Synapses I PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM nucleus f Afferent axons Sensory receptors xx Jl Effector muscle cell 39 7 O O 0 quot Autonomic ganglion The function of the nervous system 2quot 5 ti 393 w 1 774a al 39 39Jlgthiwzi Eg at 39w 39 39quotL39 3quot Koi 1 339 g a 139 K 51 In W 1 f 3 at W9 5 in 39 Ln rt t g 1 as j r W I i 45 39393J S 39wjr 1 g 3 gt I 39 V 5 iiquot a 39 39 cm39LJ 39 a 1 gtquotquot X 39 5 MOTOR o sms v RESPONSES INFORMATION modulation iNPUT STIMULUS 9 nggggghe gtOUTPUT RESPONSE Black box Signal processing is modulated through excitation and inhibition Inhibition sharpening sculpturing force in shaping signal processing Increasing discrimination ability sensitivity The Nervous System Is A 39 Neural Circuits Are Communications Network Composed 0f Receptors Neurons Effectors neural circuits can COYWVQFQ quot39Wquot3 v 3 C lt 7 f gt it Pu Latency the time lag between the onset of the stimulus and the beginning of the electrical or behavioral response Signal transmission types of synaptic transmission A Electrical synapse l ostsynaptic l resvnaptic 39 cell Cell Connexon B Chemical Synapse Signi cant synaptic delay How is the output of postsynaptic neurons shaped l resynaptic Receptor l ostsyna pt cell cell Transmitter Synaptic delay the time lag between a presynaptic nerve impulse and a postsynaptic response psp or impulses The function of the nervous system 2quot 5 ti 393 w 1 774a al 39 39Jlgthiwzi Eg at 39w 39 39quotL39 3quot Koi 1 339 g a 139 K 51 In W 1 f 3 at W9 5 in 39 Ln rt t g 1 as j r W I i 45 39393J S 39wjr 1 g 3 gt I 39 V 5 iiquot a 39 39 cm39LJ 39 a 1 gtquotquot X 39 5 MOTOR o sms v RESPONSES INFORMATION modulation iNPUT STIMULUS 9 nggggghe gtOUTPUT RESPONSE Black box Signal processing is modulated through excitation and inhibition Inhibition sharpening sculpturing force in shaping signal processing Increasing discrimination ability sensitivity The re ex are The functional unit Ofthe The funetlon of the nervous system nervous s stem REFLEX ACTION Most REFLEX ACTIONS in man involve a great many REFLEX ARCS N of STIMULUS and EFFECT OUTGOING MESSAGES From CENTRES to other muscles Give d cg HEAD NECK Assooarm ARMS Momma7t TRUNK OPPOSITE LEG TONGUE Gasp THROAT or RESPl RATION xcbmtxon ll Pathway SPJNAL cono EFFERENT Pathway W A in skin of foot EFFECTOR Muscles of leg and Foot ARp WITHDRAWAL of foot from painful stimulus The localized stimulation a very large number of outgoing of a very few RECEPTORS impulses in many EFFECTOR sending messages NEURONES f2 3 large number of alom their AFFERENT MUSCLES to give a very widespread NEURONES to SPINAL COQD and generalized REFLEX and to BRAlNhas led to RESPONSE This is possible because each receptor neurone is potentially connected within the Czntral Nerv0us System with all eFcmtor neurones mono vs polysynaptie re ex are p quot eleetrophysiologieal and behavioral response latency latent period n m U 9 n w W A oomon of Sara cord To fight or to flight HOW much do you know your brain The evolution of the brain 23 lbs n uronsa glia blood V688 ls Speci c sensory vs nonspeci c ventricular system CSF association areas E tt Transmitters WEE233 Hi ETIZ V V39 yo doe 39 system now your brain f PI nervous tints function I SF k a Q a u39 g 4 quot 139 n L a a ffu 3911 frff 39quot NERVOUS SYSTEM a naive MS Tim Nervous System is concerned With thz ENTEGEATION and CONTROL 05311 bodiiy functions It has spaczialimd in IRRITAEIUTYH Ef e s x fy 6 0 Ersatz andresmnu m p messages Fran 556 externafa a thzmgf mwjr39p menfs 5 1 m and also in CDNDUCTION 31st gbmry fa f angmfz messages to u and fmm coagwwws CENTPES 39 boa o c o o a o o o o a c o a o o cocoonoo th NERVOUS SYSTEM cansists pf 65 1 ma MWand quot 1 3 Spinal c010 r i Central nervous system ifnkad Man I gt outlying DI39 I 1 7 a oonoonoo Periphetal nervous L 3 L 5E NEGRY Naer bres carry LESSagczs Syste39 139 I fmm Tissues and Organa to the PERRPHERAL PAQT Nrarwz Fibres Bram or Spin af Cord MOTOR Name bres carry messages 0 quot I l39 quotf39 T39SSUEs nd BREE e to TISSUEs and OF qusfr omthe 039 thabody r ain anquot Spmai Cord 1H 739Ili 39Tl M f Ifquot quotIn I Y3939lquot Terminology Pertaining to the Nervous System Tenn De nition Central nervous system CNS Peripheral nervous system PNS Association neuron mterneuron Sensory neuron allerent neuron Motor neuron ellerent neuron Nerve Somatic motor nerve Autonomic motor nerve Ganglion Nucleus Tract Bram and spinal cord Nerves ganglia and nerve plexuses outside of the CNS Nultipolar neuron located entirely Willth the CNS Neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor into the CNS Neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to an ellector organ lot example a muscle Cahlehlce collection ol many axons may be mixed contain both sensory and motor hbers Nerve that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles Nerve that stimulates contraction or inhibits contraction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and that stimulates glandular secretion Grouping ol neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS Grouping ol neuron cell bodies within the CNS Grouping of nerve liners that interconnect regions ol the CNS What is neurobiology The biology of the nervous system What is the nervous system A group of functionally related organs that work together to perform encoding and decoding of external or internal stimuli to generating appropriate response for survival Neural basis of animal behavior What is neuroscience t The eld of neuroscience Cells BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES 3 Ivaeeules BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 39 Networks PHYSICAL SCIENCES What is neuroscience Neuroscience is a eld that is devoted to the scienti c study of the nervous system Such studies may include the structure function development genetics biochemistry physiology pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences However recently there has been a convergence of interest from many allied disciplines including psychology computer science statistics physics and medicine What is neuroscience The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scienti c experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms The methodologies employed by neuroscientists have been enormously expanded from biochemical and genetic analysis of dynamics of individual nerve cells and their molecular constituents to imaging representations of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain What is neuroscience Neuroscience is at the frontier of investigation of the brain and mind The study of the brain is becoming the cornerstone in understanding how we perceive and interact With the external world and in particular hoW human experience and human biology in uence each other Terminology Cephalization k E1 Vertebrates Ventricular system ventricles Ganglion vs nucleus Reticular vs neuron theorle XWi vs iEF fu iB Re ex arc monosynaptic vs polysynaptic Response latency latent period Synaptic delay Muller s laW of speci c energy Each sensory ber is maximally sensitive to a speci c energy and When activated always produces the same sensation Short vs long sensory receptor biological transducers Action potential spike nervous impulses Slow vs action potentials de ne action potentials in time domain Soma dendrite axon Intra vs extracellular recording Voltage vs patch clamp techniques Chemical vs electrical synapse Dermatome Cranial vs spinal nerves Convergence vs divergence Neuroscience vs neurobiology
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