General Psychology (August 19th-29th)
General Psychology (August 19th-29th) PSYC 1560 - 07
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Taylor on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1560 - 07 at Youngstown State University taught by Karen Giorgetti in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 272 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
General Psychology August 19th 29th Chapter 1 Introduction 3 the scientific study of behavior amp mental processes Subfields of psychology 0 Behavioral Genetics 0 Experimental Psychology 0 Behavioral Neuroscience 0 Forensic Psychology 0 Clinical Psychology 0 Health Psychology 0 Clinical Neuropsychology 0 Industrial Psychology 0 Cognitive Psychology 0 Personality Psychology 0 Counseling Psychology 0 Program Evaluation 0 CrossCultural Psychology 0 Psychology of Women Gender Studies 0 Developmental Psychology 0 School Psychology 0 Educational Psychology 0 Social Psychology 0 Environmental Psychology 0 Sport Psychology 0 Evolutionary Psychology 0 And these are by far NOT all subfields of psychology today As technology and understanding expands new fields are discovered and created These subfields answer all kinds of questions 0 The biological foundations of behavior 0 Behavior neuroscience focuses on the brain nervous system and other biological aspects of the body which explain behavior 0 How do people sense perceive learn and think about the world 0 Experimental psychology studies these things and the subfield cognitive psychology focuses on the higher mental processes 0 Sources of change and stability in behavior throughout lifespan 0 Developmental psychology looks at behavioral changes from conception to death and can be divided as specific age groups children young adults the elderly etc 0 Personality psychology focuses on consistency of behavior through time and the traits that differentiate one person from the next 0 Psychological factors effect on physical and mental health 0 Health psychology focuses on ties between psychological health amp physical ailments 0 Clinical psychology focuses on the study diagnosis amp treatment of mental health issues 0 Counseling psychology focuses on educational social and career adjustment 0 Social networks link to behavior 0 This is focused on by crosscultural and social psychology They are as they sound 0 Where do we go from here 0 Evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics both easier to be accessed and observed thanks to advances in technology 0 Clinical neuropsychologyjust mixes both neuroscience and clinical psychology Once again made easier by advances in technology and a higher understanding of how the brain works NOW on to the really important stuff The Roots of Psychology An important note women and minorities were very often discouraged and underrepresented in the world of psychology Education Psychologists typically earn the following degrees 0 PhD Doctor of Philosophy 0 PsyD Doctor of Psychology 0 Master s Degree 0 Bachelor s Degree These careers range from administrative to practice History 9 o Founded by 1879 o Focused on uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness thinking amp other mental processes 0 is a key word here This being quotthe examination or observation of one s own mental and emotional processes Wundt wanted to know their experiences 0 The big downside is that a person s experiences are just that THEIR experiences and they are usually always different from other people s experiences How would you explain how water tastes Most people will answer that question differently o wanted and answer to quothow does the MIND function 0 He concentrated specifically on what the mind does and the role of behavior in how it allows a person to adapt to their environment 0 Forgetting Curve amp 0 They basically said that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Rather they looked at the BIG picture rather than just how the mind works orjust how people experience things History of Women and Minorities in Psychology The first woman with a PsyD 0 One of the first psychologists to focus on women amp children o Researched the Variability Hypothesis and proved that women s strengths and weaknesses vary greatly JUST LIKE with men 0 Focused on the study of memory 0 Was the first woman president of the American Psychological Association APA 0 Study of personality 0 First to head a psychology department in a state university 0 Daughter of Sigmund Freud o Studied behavior AfricanAmerican o Focused on how children grew up to recognize racial difference at the time all races preferred white dolls white features etc AfricanAmerican 0 First black male psychologist 1920 AfricanAmerican o Studied segregation and its effects 0 First black male president of the APA Latina 0 First Latina psychologist o Contributed greatly to ethnic minority psychology Perspectives O 00 views behavior from the perspective of the brain nervous system and other biological functions 0 Behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control 0 Your life is basically chosen for you by 6 years old so parents motivate almost all behavior 0 o Suggests that observable measurable behavior should be the focus of study 0 We should only study behaviors we can see 0 Behavior was influenced and determined by your environment 0 Psychologists studied animals to determine this 0 00 o Focuses on how people think understand and know about the world 0 Information processing happens much like a computer 0 Everything starts where our memories form We can in theory keep memories forever 0 Memories can be lost like losing a paper you saved on a computer like losing keys and not knowing where they are 0 Sometimes access can be quotdeniedquot Memories are lost 0 Every human being is born striving to be the best 0 Suggests individuals naturally strive to grow develop and be in control of their lives and behavior Free will v nature and nurture Roadblocks can happen to prevent us from being the best that we can be quotTouchy feely We can get around all roadblocks We make ALL of our choices Emphasis on free will contrasts to determinism EVERYONE experiences life differently OOOOO Psychology s Key Issues amp Controversies 0 Free Will v Determinism 0 Free will insists that ALL choices are made and ALL roads are paved by each individual person NOTHING matters but free will not nature nurture etc o Determinism is the idea that most if not all behavior is determined by things outside of any one person s control Psychologv s Future 0 Will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve o Neuroscientific approaches will likely influence other branches of psychology 0 Influence on issues of public interest will grow 0 MUST focus on what government and public want to know to get the funding they want These are considered more important than general psychological inquiries o Public s view will become more informed 0 Issues of diversity will become increasingly important They have also already become important in today s society Research in Psychology 0 Approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and other understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interests 0 00 o Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interests 0 Provides a framework for understanding the relationships among a set of unorganized facts or principals 0 Example Diffusion of responsibility especially by the bystander effect quotsomeone else will help that person 0 00 o A prediction stemming from a theory stated in a way that allows it to be tested 0 Example College students are smarter than those with only a high school diploma or GED O Taking a hypothesis and putting it into very specific testable terms Example The college students go to a 4year college and are ages 1825 Psychologists rely on theories and hypotheses for many reasons 0 Testing big ideas 0 Allows them to make deductions about those ideas 0 Imposes the theories on information that doesn t otherwise make sense 0 Helps develop ideas for future research Psychological Research 9 0 Systematic allows accuracy and replication inquiry aimed at discovery of new knowledge 9 o It does exactly that it describes It is the systematic investigation of a person group or pattern of behavior 9 0 Existing data are examined to test a hypothesis 0 Examples The census ACT scores newspaper clippings articles etc o Inexpensive and pretty easy to find 0 Problem is that some things change are outdated and may not be a complete picture of study sample as well as the fact that they may be missing data are inaccuratebiasedlies not the content you re looking for 0 Example You d have to do the census which not everyone may do 0 00 0 Observations that are naturally occurring with no interference from the observer 0 It s free to see how people behave in their natural environment 0 Disadvantage The observer has absolutely NO CONTROL 0 00 o Surveys allow you to ask questions Ask anything about behaviors thoughts attitudes o Disadvantages You can t necessarily get everyone people lie questions can be biased and people s answers can be biased It is also on a volunteer basis 0 00 o ndepth study of one person or a small group 0 Tons of information can be acquired o Disadvantage Not every person or small group is the same The study cannot generalize every group or person to one study 0 00 0 Relationship between variables is examined to determine 0 Whether they are associated or correlated o VARIABLES are different whereas a constant is 12 is one foot That will never change 0 Correlation Coefficient represents the strength and direction of the relationship of two variables 0 Close to one or 1 it is a strong relationship whereas 0 is no relationship at all 0 Direction refers to whether it s positive or negative 0 Positive increases together This would show ONE DIRECTION 0 Example As attendance increases your grade would also increase 0 Negative as one increases the other decreases This would show OPPOSITE DIRECTION ex More noise less concentration 0 Disadvantage Correlations never equal positive and it can never be said that one variable causes a change in the other 0 Example You can t say that the grade is based solely on attendance as there are other factors sa tests and homework 9 0 When you look at the relationship between two or more variables by 0 Experiment producing change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects on the second variable 0 Experimental Manipulation a change in made INTENTIONALLY Experimental Groups amp Control Groups e o Is given to experimental group manipulated variable not to control group 00 o The manipulated variable the cause a o The effect the outcome Random assignment to condition is necessary we would be told where to go and it would be very specific taking away choice Using this method should lead to 0 Significant outcome a meaningful accurate result 0 Replicated research ability to be replicated The Ethics of Research GUIDLEINES are required to protect participants from physical and mental harm secures their right to privacy gives assurance that their participation is completely voluntary
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