First Week Notes (Textbook and Lecture)
First Week Notes (Textbook and Lecture) 42829 - PSY 121 - 003
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42829 - PSY 121 - 003
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Caffey on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 42829 - PSY 121 - 003 at Missouri State University taught by Christie L Cathey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology I Why Study Psychology i Can help you understand 1 How brain and body are connected 2 Improve learning abilities and memory 3 How to deal with stress ii Research can be awed ll What is Psychology i Psychology the scienti c study of behavior and mental processes 1 Behavior overt actions and reactions 2 Mental Processes covert activities of the mind ii Goals in uncovering behavior are 1 Description What is happening a Observing a behavior and noting everything about it b Where what whom and under what circumstances 2 Explanation Why is it happening a Theory general explanation of a set of observations or facts 3 Prediction when will it happen again a Prediction determining what will happen in the future 4 Control how can it be changed a Control modi cation of some behavior i Focus is to change a behavior from an undesirable one to a desirable one 5 Not all psychological investigations will meet all four goals lll Psychology Then The History of Psychology i Only about 130 years old ii Many philosophers thought about little else b In the Beginning Wundt Titchener and James i 1879 Leipzig Germany 1 Wilhelm Wundt attempted to apply scienti c principles to study of human mind a Believed that the consciousness could be broken down into thoughts experiences emotions and other basic elements b Objective introspection process of objectively examining and measuring one39s own thoughts and mental activities i Objectivity is important because scientists need to remain unbiased c quotfather of psychologyquot c Titchener and Structuralism in America i Edward Titchener 1867 1927 1 Structuralism focus of study was the structure of the mind 2 Believed that objective introspection could be used on thoughts as well as physical sensations ii 1894 Margaret F Washburn 1 First woman to receive PhD in psychology 2 1908 The Animal Mind book on animal behavior that was considered important in that era iii Structuralism died out in early 19005 d William James and Functionalism i Harvard University rst school in America to offer psychology classes in late 1870s taught by William James 1 Principles ofPsychoogy comprehensive textbook written by William James ii James was more interested in the importance of consciousness to everyday life iii Functionalism how the mind allows people to function in the real world 1 Heavily in uenced by Charles Darwin39s ideas about natural selection iv Mary Whiton Calkins 1 Denied a degree by Harvard because she was female 2 Her work was some of the earliest research in the area of human memory and psychology of the self 3 1905 became the rst female president of the American Psychological Association APA v Francis Cecil Sumner 1 1920 rst AfricanAmerican to earn psychological PhD at Clark University 2 Became chair of psychological department at Howard University 3 Assumed by many to be the father of AfricanAmerican Psychology vi Kenneth and Mamie Clark worked to show the negative effects of school segregation on AfricanAmerican children vii Jorge Sanchez conducted research in area of intelligence testing 1 Focused on cultural bias on tests viii Functionalism offered alternative view to structuralism 1 No longer major perspective 2 Elements can be found in educational psychology and industrialorganization psychology e Three ln uential Approaches i Gestalt Psychology The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts 1 Max Wertheimer a Felt that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be broken down into any smaller elements and still be properly understood 2 Gestalt Psychology a Gestalt German word quotorganized wholequot or quotconfigurationquot b Part of study of cognitive psychology c Became basis for Gestalt Therapy ii Sigmund Freud s Theory of Psychoanalysis 1 Sigmund Freud neurologist a Proposed that there is an unconscious mind into which we repress all threatening urges and desires b Believed that these repressed urges created nervous disorders c Stressed importance of early childhood experience i Personality formed in rst six years of life 2 Well known followers a Alfred Adler Carl Jung Anna Freud daughter 3 Anna began an ego movement in psychology a Produced Erik Erikson 4 Basic ideas are still discussed and debated 5 Freudian Psychoanalysis theory and therapy based on Freud39s ideas a Basis of modern psychotherapy b Psychotherapy process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insight into and change hisher behavior iii Pavlov Watson and the Dawn of Behaviorism 1 Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist a Showed that a re ex could be caused to occur in response to a new and formerly unrelated stimulus b Conditioning using a new stimulus to initiate an old re ex 2 John B Watson a Behaviorism the study of behavior b Wanted to focus only on observable behavior something that could be directly seen and measured c Believed that all behavior is learned d quotLittle Albertquot experiment i Wanted to prove that all behavior was a result of a stimulusresponse relationship 3 Mary CoverJones a Masters degree in 1920 underJohn B Watson b Counterconditioning using a new stimulus to undo a previous conditioning c Became one of the early pioneers of behavior therapy 4 Behaviorism in uenced development of other perspectives IV Psychology Now where We Are Today a Modern Perspectives i Psychodynamic Perspective 1 Focus includes unconscious mind and its in uence over conscious behavior and an early childhood experience 2 Less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations and more emphasis on development of sense of self social and interpersonal relationships and discovery of other motivations behind a person39s behavior 3 Link between neurobiology and psychodynamic concepts ii Behavioral Perspective 1 John B Watson moved on B F Skinner became the new leader 2 Operant Conditioning behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced iii Humanistic Perspective 1 quotthird forcequot in psychology 2 Humanism was really a reaction to both psychoanalytical theory and behaviorism 3 Humanists held the view that people have free will and they strive for selfactualization 4 Abraham Maslow 1908 1970 and Carl Rogers 1902 1987 5 Humanism exists as a form of psychotherapy aimed at selfunderstanding and selfimprovement iv Cognitive Perspective 1 Focuses on how people think remember shore and use information 2 Became a major focus in psychology with its focus on memory intelligence perception thought processes problem solving language and learning 3 Cognitive neuroscience study of physical workings of the brain and nervous systems when engaged in memory thinking and other cognitive processes 4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography PET v Sociocultural Perspective 1 Combines social psychology study of groups social roles and rules of social action and relationships and cultural psychology study of cultural norms values and expectations 2 Reminds people that the way they and others behave is in uenced not only by whether they are alone or not but also by the social norms 3 CrossCultural Research a Contrasts and comparisons of a behavior or issue are studied in at least two or more cultures b Can help illustrate the different in uences of environment when compared to the in uence of heredity vi Bystander Effect 1 Presence of other people lessened the chances that a person in trouble would receive help 2 Believed to be the result of diffusion of responsibility a Tendency to feel that someone else is responsible for taking action when others are present vii Biopsychological Perspective 1 Biopsychology study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes a AKA physiological psychology biological psychology psychobiology and behavioral neuroscience 2 Neuroscience study of the physical structure function and development of the nervous system 3 Human and animal behavior seen as a direct result of events in the body viii Evolutionary Perspective 1 Focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share 2 Seeks to explain general mental strategies and traits 3 Mind is seen as a set of information processing machines ix Psychologist will often take an eclectic perspective 1 quotbits and piecesquot of several perspectives that seem to best t a particular situation b Psychological Professionals and Areas of Specialization i Psychologist has a doctorate degree but no medical training 1 Works in many different vocational settings 2 Focus of careers can widely vary ii Psychiatrist has a medical degree and is a physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorder 1 Psychiatric Social worker trained in area of social work and usually possess a master39s degree there iii Research Psychologist 1 Basic research for the sake of gaining scienti c knowledge 2 Applied research aimed at answering real world practical problems V Scienti c Research a The Scienti c Mind i Perceiving the Question 1 Form a question based on something you observe ii Forming a Hypothesis 1 2 Form an educated guess about the explanation for observations Con rmation Bias selective perception that people have a tendency to notice things that agree with their view iii Testing the Hypothesis 1 Method used to test the hypothesis will depend on what kind of answer you might get iv Drawing Conclusions 1 Any data that comes from the testing procedure will be analyzed with a statistical method v Reporting Your Results 1 2 Write up exactly what why how and your ndings If others can replicate the experiment it would give more support to the ndings b Descriptive Methods i Naturalistic Observation 1 2 Best way to look at behavior of a group is to watch the group behave in their normal environment Advantage allows researchers to get realistic picture of how behavior occurs because they are observing that behavior Observer Effect peopleanimals will change the way they act if they know they are being observed Participant Observation become a participant in order to observe behaviors Disadvantages a Observer Bias person observing has a particular opinion about what they are going to seeexpect to see i Blind Observers people who do not know what the research question is and has no preconceived notions about what they should see b Each naturalistic setting is unique i Observations made in one setting at one time may not hold true for another time ii Laboratory Observations 1 Advantage a Able to control basically everything about the experiment 2 Disadvantage a Arti cial setting might result in arti cial behavior iii Case Studies 1 One individual is studied in great detail 2 Advantages a Tremendous amount of detail b Good way to study rare conditions 3 Disadvantage a Researchers can not apply results to other similar people Case Studies are a form of detailed observation and are vulnerable to bias on part of the person conducting the research b iv Surveys 1 2 4 c Correlations 1 101 Can be conducted in person interviews telephone Internet or with a questionnaire Advantage a Ability to elicit private information b Obtain tremendous amount of data in a large group Disadvantage a They can39t do an entire region for a group of people i Representative Sample random group of people that will represent the population b People don39t always give accurate answers i People deliberately give what they think is the more socially correct answer so as not to offend people courtesy bias Wording and order of questions can affect the outcome Finding Relationships Statistical technique particular way of organizing numerical information so that it is easier to look for patters in information About nding relationships Correlation measure of the relationship between two or more variables a Variable anything that can change or vary Correlation Coef cient represents direction of the relationship and its strength Positive Number two variables increase in the same direction Negative Number variables have an inverse relationship Strength of relationship depends on a number between positive 100 and negative 100 a Cannot be greater or less because it has to do with a formula and an imaginary line on a scatter plot b Closer to zero the weaker the relationship Correlation does not prove causation a Just because two variables are related to one another does not meant that one can cause the other d The Experiment 1 ii 1 iii The only method that will allow researchers to determine the cause of the behavior Selection Pick a group randomly to participate in the experiment The Variables 5 6 Decision of variables often comes before participants Manipulated Variable the variable that researchers think causes change in behavior Measured Variable the effect on behavior of manipulation Operational De nition speci cally names operations that experiment must use to control or measure variables in experiment Independent Variable variable that is independent of anything the participants do Dependent Variable participants response to the manipulation of the independent variable iv The Groups 1 2 3 4 Confounding Variables variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest Best way to control confounding variables is to have two groups of participation Experimental Groups the group that is exposed to the independent variable Control Group the group that gets no treatment or some kind of treatment that should have no effect v The Importance of Randomization 1 Random assignment of participants to groups is best way to ensure control over extraneous variables e Experiment Hazards and Controlling for Effects i The Placebo Effect and the Experiment Effect f 1 2 Placebo Effect expectations and biases of the participants in a study can in uence their behavior a Placebo something that looks like the independent variable that can ensure if there is a placebo effect or not Experimenter Effect when the researcher is measuring the dependent variable it is possible that they can give the participants clues on how they are to respond a The behavior of the experimenter caused the participant to change hisher response pattern ii Controlling for Effects SingleBlind and DoubleBlind Studies 1 2 SingleBlind Study participants are quotblindquot to the treatment they receive DoubleBlind Study neither the participants nor the persons measuring the dependent variable know who got what a Everything is coded Ethics of Psychological Research 1 Ethical Treatment people who volunteer for a study will be able to expect that no physicalpsychological harm should come to them 2 Institutional Review Boards a group of psychologists and other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study ii The Guidelines for Doing Research with People 1 Rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study39s value to science 2 Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation Deception must be justi ed Participants may withdraw from the study at any time Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks 6 Investigators must debrief participants telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results 7 Data must remain con dential 8 If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for the participant the researcher is responsible for detecting and removing or correcting these consequences iii Animal Research 1 Animals live shorter lives so looking at longterm effects becomes easier 2 Animals are easier to control and engage in simpler behavior than humans do 3 Animals can be used in ways that researchers never could with people 4 Ethics focus is on avoiding exposing animals to unnecessary pain or suffering 5 Only used in about seven percent of all psychological studies Vl Applying Psychology to Everyday Life 1 Critical Thinking making reasoned judgments ii There are very few quottruthsquot that do not need to be subjected to testing iii All evidence is not equal in quality iv just because someone is considered to be an authority to have a lot of expertise does not make everything that person claim to be automatically true 1 Law of parsimony simplest explanation is most often the best one v Critical thinking requires an open mind mes Introductory Psych Class Notes CH 1 Scienti c study of behavior is observable while mental processes are not inverted Seven Perspectives 1 Psychodynamic Freud father ego superego id everything is about the unconscious personality 2 Behavioral Watson Pavlov Skinner rejection against Freud observable behaviors only 3 Cognitive how we process information and think computers 4 Humanistic Maslow Rogerson free will self actualization heavily in uenced by existential philosophers Sociocultural culture society Biopsychological brain and body how they in uence thinking and behavior Evolutionary how our brain and body passes on genes and other things in order to survive Types of Studies 1 Naturalistic observing without intervening a Observer effect observer effects how people act b Participant observation c Observer bias blind observer Case Study Phineas Gage Survey a Population of interest representative sample 4 Correlation Research measuring the relationship between two or more variables a Correlation Coef cient i Direction and strength 1 and 1 ii Closer to zero stronger it is b Correlation does not equal causation UJN The Experiment 1 Variables a Independent researcher manipulates b Dependent researcher measures 2 Groups a Experimental researcher manipulates b Control does nothing basic Experimental Hazards 1 Placebo Effect expectations leads to results 2 Experimenter Effect experimenters effects results 3 Double or Single Blind a Single experiment does not know b Double nobody knows