Week 1 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Bacon on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1210 at Ohio University taught by Andrew Tangonan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Chemistry Notes Week 1 824 Chemistry The study of matter its composition properties and transformation W Anything that has mass and takes up space States of Matter So1id 0 Has a de nite volume 0 Maintains its shape regardless of container 0 Particles are close together Liquid 0 Has a de nite volume 0 takes the shape of its container 0 particles are more loosely packed No de nite volume No de nite shape Particles are very far apart from each other and move randomly Physical properties can be observed Without changing the chemical composition of a material Color odor boilingmelting point solubility density and state of matter are all physical properties Physical change alters the material Without changing the composition Chemical properties determine how a substance can be converted into another substance Chemical change is the chemical reaction that converts one substance into another gt all transformations accompanied by a change in energy 826 Every measurement is composed of a number and a unit the number is meaningless Without the unit Each type of measurement has a base unit in the metric system Length Meter m Mass Gram g Volume Liter L Time Second s Each of these units can act as a base for other units Mega Million Kilo Thousand Deci Tenth Centi Hundredth Milli Thousandth Micro Millionth Nano Billianth M amount of matter Weight Force of gravity Wmg the base unit of mass is gram 1ml1cm31cc Exact number example 10 toes Inexact number example 103 cm Signi cant gures are all digits in a measured number including the one that39s estimated all nonzero digits are always signi cant ex 652g 255345g 3 sig g 6 sig g Rules for zeros 1 A zero counts as a signi cant gure when it occurs between two nonzero digits At the end of a number with a decimal place ex 2905 10087 37500 620 4sf 5sf 5sf 3sf 2 A zero does not count when it occurs at the beginning of a number At the end of a number without a decimal ex 000247 0008 2570 1245500 3 sf 1 sf 3 sf 5 sf The answer always has the same number of signi cant gures as the original number with the fewest signi cant gures ex 3512 miles 55 hrs 64 mph Scienti c Notation Y 10Ax X the exponent The coef cient is always a number between 1 and 10 828 Factor label method using conversion factors to convert a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit Units are treated numbers Make sure all unwanted units are cancelled Conversion Factor a term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit original quantity conversion factor desired quantity eX 221 lb 1 kg to use them they must be written as fractions 221 lb 1 kg 130 lb 130lb2 kg 59kg always arrange the factors so that the denominator in one term cancels the numerator in the preceding term sometimes two conversion factors are needed Density A physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume density mass g volume ml or cc Speci c Gravity a quantity that compares the density of a substance with the density of water at the same temperature Specific gravity density of a substance gml density of water gml Energy The capacity to do work may be either kinetic or potential the calorie cal is the basic unit of energy Kinetic Energy KE the energy of random motion KB 12 mv2 KE increases as velocity increases At the same velocity a heavier object has greater kinetic energy Potential Energy The energy an object has because of its position stored energy EX of kinetic energy are mechanical energy light heat and electrical energy In chemistry the most important forms of potential energy are chemical energy and nuclear energy Law of Conservation of Energy energy can neither be created or destryed energy can be converted from one form to another Heat is a form of energy Heat moves from hot to cold Measured in calories which is the heat necessary to raise the temperature of lg of water by one degree celsius gt calorie is not an of cial unit of SI the of cial unit is Joule J Degrees Celcius to Farenheit Degrees Fahrenheit to Degrees Celsius 18 degrees celsius 32 degrees fahrenheit 32 18 Speci c heat The amount of heat necessary to raise lg of a substance by 1 degree celsius amount ofheat SH m T2 T1