Basic Review of Multiple Tissues
Basic Review of Multiple Tissues ZO331
Popular in animal physiology
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Brazel on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ZO331 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. siegel in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see animal physiology in Biology at Southeast Missouri State University.
Reviews for Basic Review of Multiple Tissues
Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/29/15
Notes for Animal Physiology 824829 2015 During the first week of class the professor gave us a tour of what kind of reasoning and questioning we should expect for the semester Much of what he discussed is available on the class google drive folder so I will leave that subject to the nights Instead the first week of notes will be centered on the types of tissues reviewed during the lab The task during the lab was through observation find the perceived usefulness and function of these tissues In addition we were not formally taught during the lab the actual function of these tissues because Dr Siegel is wanting us to think as a physiologist During class we will undoubtedly learn the true nature of these tissues but it does not hurt to gain a prior knowledge of them In light of this this week s notes will comprise information over each tissue we have seen from information derived from online sources and the text book Hope this helps The Epithelium The first class of cells we encountered within the lab belonged to the epithelium According to the book an epithelium is a layer of cells that protect organs cavities the surface of the skin and functionally different areas of the body from external influence A simple epithelium is composed a single layer of a single type of epithelial cells These individual types of cells will be discussed shortly but amongst all of these types of cells there are similarities Each cell has what is called an apical and basal surface the apical surface points towards a cavity while the basal surface is attached to what is called the basement membrane a thin and permeable tier of matrix that is secreted by the cells In addition cells that are a part of a simple epithelium are all connected via one of four junctions tight septate desmosomes or gap junctions A tight junction is characterized by an extremely close attachment between two adjacent cells These junctions are usually found near the apical surfaces and allow no intracellular space According to the book any sort of epithelial cells form a ring of tight junctions with its neighboring cells This ring formation of tight junctions is a key factor in how physiologists determine the apical from the basal membranes The book also references septate junctions but these will not be discussed due to the fact that they are special to invertebrates the professor has expressly told the class that invertebrates will not be discussed in lecture Desmosomes are areas in which glycoprotein strands form together to make a type of meshwork bonds The best analogy for desmosomes are Velcro straps In both cases strands come together to form tight bonds Desmosomes are found to be largely random in their placement and are thought to be used a sort of additional measure in strengthening cell bonding Lastly we have gap junctions These junctions are characterized by their pores Due to the presence of pores these junctions are excellent in allowing small molecules and ions through This allows a sort of nutrient transfer and helpful in cell to cell communications Next the function of each type of epithelial cells seen during the lab will be reported and discussed along with their most likely area of occurring Simple cuboidal These types of epithelium are found in ducts glands kidney tubules and other areas in the body responsible for secretory processes This type of epithelial cell is useful in prevention abrasion of sensitive glandular tissue and repulsion of foreign particles In addition the cuboidal shape these epithelial cells have confer great surface area that aids in excretion and absorption of substances Simple Columnar These cells are found in many parts of the body due to their versatility Mainly they can be found in the respiratory tract the digestive tract and reproductive organs These cells can even be enervated to give them sensory capabilities These cells are adept at being selectively permeable and create an excellent barrier against the acidic and bacterial environment of the digestive system while also being able to absorb nutrients and ions from the same environment These types of cells also aid in the secretion of mucus Stratified squamous When an epithelium is quotstratifiedquot it means that there are stacks of each type of cells giving multiple layers Stratified squamous cells are excellent at allowing mobility decreasing friction and protection from chemical dangers Because of this stratified squamous cells can be found in very sensitive areas of the body such as the alveoli esophagus and the vagina These cells are important in the alveoli because they allow for gaseous diffusion that is essential for bodily functions Stratified Cuboidal Just like stratified squamous the fact that these are stratified allow protection from abrasion This type of epithelium is commonly found within mammary glands salivary glands and the esophagus From what I have seen the function of cuboidal and stratified cuboidal are largely the same but stratified cuboidal cells are important in protecting the larger glands of the body It is also believed that these types of cells can pump material in and out of the lumen Stratified Columnar These types of cells are mainly found in the male sex organs and in a few different glands These are also found in goblet cells and in the vas deferens Pseudo stratified This type of epithelia is strange in that it is considered simple yet looks stratified These types of epithelia are found primarily in the trachea and the upper respiratory tract These cells can be ciliated and aid in secretion and absorption of materials Transitional this type of epithelium is superb in allowing stretching and elasticity These can be found in the bladder and other areas of the urinary tract Connective Tissues These types of tissues are useful in their namesake types of connections within the body These connections help support and bind differing organs and skin The five types of connective tissues seen in lab are Loose areolar Dense regular Dense irregular Reticular and Elastic Loose areolar this is also called loose connective tissue This type of tissue can be found throughout all areas of the body and acts as a supportive sheath One of its most important functions connecting skin to the muscle This type of tissue is a matrix of collagen fibers elastic fibers and reticular fibers Dense Regular This type of tissue is very fibrous can resist changes in extreme movement and stress This type of tissue comes in the form of tendons and ligaments The reason why this tissue is called quotdense regular is because of the large dense amount of fibers present and these fibers are all running parallel to each other This common directionality is what confers such high tensile strength and resistance 0 Dense Irregular This type of tissue is also dense in fibers but these fibers are not uniformly woven like dense regular tissue Since they fibers are not wove entirely parallel to each other the extreme amount of tensile strength as seen in dense regular tissue is lessened Even so the fibers still have viable tensile strength while also being more pliable These factors make dense irregular tissue perfect for the skin 0 Reticular This type of connective tissue is a mesh of reticular fibers This mesh of reticular fibers creates a quotstromaquot or a soft skeleton that can support organs such as the lymph nodes red bone marrow and spleen Fat cells are also held together by reticula tissue 0 Elastic this type of tissue is composed of fibers made of primarily elastin This type of tissue is found in a vast majority of organs including the skin lungs and veins It is through this type of connective tissue that confers forms elasticity throughout the body Cartilage o Hyaline this type of cartilage is composed of hyaline It can be found towards the bottom of the ribs towards the lungs the larynx trachea and other parts of the body This type of cartilage is thought to help in locomotion Due to the lack of blood supply and nutrients hyaline cartilage is difficult to heal if damaged 0 Elastic this type of cartilage is largely composed of elastin This composition confers the ability to handle a large amount of wear and tear from external influences This type of cartilage is responsible for allowing our outer ear to withstand conformations and bending In addition this cartilage can be found in the epiglottis and the Eustachian tube 0 Fibrocartilage This type of cartilage is found in the joints A mixture of fibrous tissue and cartilaginous tissue helps create this type of cartilage By combining these two types of tissues fibrocartilage has both flexibility and toughness while also being slightly elastic Types of Muscle o Skeletal This type of muscle is responsible for allowing movement of the body s skeleton This promotes locomotion or movement of the body Skeletal muscles are connected to the skeletal system via tendons In addition this type of muscle is under voluntary control of the organism The cells of this type of muscle are multinucleated 0 Smooth this type of muscle is not striated at opposed to skeletal muscles In addition it is not under the voluntary whim of the organism and performs its functions unbeknownst the person Smooth muscles can be found in the digestive tract urinary tract reproductive organs and etc 0 Cardiac This type of muscle is striated like skeletal muscle but involuntary like smooth muscle The cells of this muscle are intercalated and only have single nuclei These muscle cells are also adept at receiving and transporting electrical signals in order to adequately contract the heart and pump blood If one were to notice I left out the compact bone and the nervous tissues These tissues were a little too different for me to classify them into any category or I was uncomfortable with the information I was trying to add to the notes Information over differing types of bones and nervous tissues will be uploaded in other notes throughout the semester
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'