BSC 101 Helms Week 2 Lecture Notes 8/24-8/28
BSC 101 Helms Week 2 Lecture Notes 8/24-8/28 BSC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
BSC 101 Helms 824828 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 6 Producers Plants Algae and Phytoplankton Algae and Phytoplankton do more than plants Photosynthesis The process producers use to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy sugar Consumers and Decomposers Consumers Count on producers for chemical energy to obtain this energy they consume the producers Decomposers Break down both dead consumers and waste products to recycle the nutrients to be used again by producers Cellular Respiration The process in which organisms break down certain nutrients to create ATP Aerobic cellular respiration requires the presence of oxygen in order to make ATP Bacteria decomposers and some consumers can do aerobic cellular respiration ATP Energy within cells as a result of cellular respiration Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 8 Chromosomes The structures in the cell that store the DNA DNA The information storage system of heredities packaged as chromosomes Genes Found in DNA they are blueprints of heredity to make proteins and what we look like Nucleotides Found in Genes contain ATCG s Adenine Thymine Cytosine and Guanine DNA is the Universal genetic code Gene gt Protein gt Phenotype Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 9 Organisms grow develop and reproduce Grow Increasing in size could be cellular could be huge Development Going from immature to a mature state Reproduce Passing on heredity traits to the next generation BSC 101 Helms 824828 Organisms sense and respond to change Homeostasis Sensing adjusting and maintaining conditions in an internal environment within a range that favors survival and reproduction Examples Jumping with surprised goose bumps sweating Populations of organisms adapt and evolve over time Adaptation Change in a structure allowing the organism to be more suited to its surrounding environment Evolution Genetic changes in populations over time generations Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 11 Molecules Atoms in living systems rarely exist alone They constantly interact and form bonds that make molecules The bonds that hold molecules together may be strong or weak Covalent strong bonds result from the sharing of electrons between other atoms Ionic weak bonds result from an attraction of oppositely charged ions The way that atoms interact in a molecule gives the molecule its shape and shape is everything in a molecule Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 12 Water H20 The atomic interactions and bonds result in A covalent bond sharing electrons and within this bond Oxygen keeps the electrons closer to itself than the Hydrogen Oxygen is the negative in this bond while Hydrogen is the positive The charged ends of the water molecule influence how water molecules interact It causes liquid water to be sticky and elastic and to form drops It also allows the molecule to interact with up to four other water molecules Water s stickiness is an important chemical property that allows it to have tension It also allows water to be pulled upward BSC 101 Helms 824828 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 13 Macromolecules or biomolecules Carbohydrates DNA and RNA Proteins Lipids Organic Molecules compounds Carbon and Hydrogen part of support structure Carbohydrates Organic compounds made of sugar Sugar starch glycogen cellulose DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids Chains of nucleotides joined by sugar phosphate bonds Proteins Large molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids Muscle fibers collagen enzymes carriers hormones Lipids Fatty oily or waxy molecules with a hydrocarbon backbone Fats phospholipids cholesterol and waxes Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 14 The cells that make organisms are divided into two basic groups Prokaryotic small simple cells that do not have organized compartments Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotic large complex cells consisting of many specialized compartments quotTrue Nucleus Animals Plants Fungi and Protists Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 15 Evolution occurs by natural selection over time Natural Selection Mechanism of evolution because it allows for differential survival and differential reproduction Natural selection acts over time on variation inheritance selection and adaptation Environment drives change In the photos the light colored mouse would reach reproduction in the lightcolored environment The dark colored mouse would reach reproduction in the darkcolored environment Evolution is marked by common descent The unity of life refers to showing connection of life from a common ancestor Since all living things descended from a common ancestor Natural selection is an explanation that accounts for biological diversity from a common ancestor BSC 101 Helms 824828 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 16 Scientific inquiry involves Science is systematic investigation of the world Scientists attempt to define experiments that are measurable then produce and reproduce data Teamwork and peer review provides critical feedback to ensure soundness and validity Scientific investigation involves a variety of approaches Observation Watching and recording Experimentation Testing and manipulating variables
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