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HA & P Chapter 4 Lesson 6

by: Kelsie Carter

HA & P Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Bio 2010

Kelsie Carter

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 4 lesson 6
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sabine Allenspach
Class Notes
anatomy, Human, cells, layers, organization, tissue
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
 Supporting connective tissues 1. cartilage A. jelly like matrix B. contains collagenous and elastic fibers C. no direct supply from matrix D. chondrocytes: surrounded by lacunae a. production of matrix and antiangiogenesis factor E. perichondrium a. connective tissue wrapping around cartilage I. contain blood vessels 2. types of cartilage A. hyaline B. elastic C. fibrocartilage 3. hyaline cartilage A. function: stiff, flexible support, reduces friction a. collagen type II B. location: trachea, bronchi, sternum, costal cartilage, articular cartilage 4. elastic cartilage A. function: supportive and bends easily a. collagen type II and elastin B. location: external ear, epiglottis, larynx cartilage 5. fibrocartilage A. function: limits movement, prevents bone-bone contact a. collagen type I b. no perichondrium B. location: intervertebral discs, meniscus, pubic synthesis 6. bone or osseous tissue A. strong calcified calcium B. resist shattering due to collagen fibers 7. bone cells or osteocytes A. arranged around central canals within matrix B. small channels through matrix (caniculi) access blood supply) 8. periosteum A. made of fibrous layer and cellular layer B. covers compact bone C. dense layer on connective tissue  Membranes 1. membranes A. functions: a. lines or cover portions of the body b. consist of epithelium and supported by connective tissue 2. four types of membranes A. musuc B. serous C. cutaneous D. synovial 3. mucus membranes (mucosae) A. lines passageways that have external connections B. location: digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems C. epithelial surfaces must be moist a. to reduce friction b. to facilitate absorption and excretion D. lamina propria a. specialized CT right below simple columnar ET b. is areolar tissue c. example in digestive tract 4. serous membranes A. have fluid to reduce friction B. parietal portion covering the cavity C. visceral portion (serosa) cover the organs D. three serous membranes a. pericardium: lining pericardial cavity, which covers the heart b. pleura: lines pleural cavities, covers the lungs c. peritoneum: lines peritoneal cavity, covers abdominal organs 5. cutaneous membranes A. is skin, surface of the body B. thick, waterproofed, and dry 6. synovial membranes A. line moving, articulating joint cavities B. produce synovial fluid (lubricant) C. lack of true epithelium  Internal Framework of the Body 1. fasciae A. the body’s framework of CT B. layers and wrappings that support or surround organs C. three types: a. superficial: hypodermis (adipose and areolar tissue) b. deep: made of dense irregular tissue c. subserous: made of areolar, between serous membrane and deep fascia  Muscle Tissue 1. muscle tissue: specialized tissue for contraction, producing all body movements 2. three types of muscle tissue A. skeletal muscle: large muscles responsible for movement B. cardiac muscle: found only in the heart C. smooth muscle: found in walls of hollow, contracting organs (blood vessels; urinary bladder; respiratory , digestive, and reproductive tract) 2. skeletal muscle cells A. long and thin- cylinder shape B. Unusually called muscle fibers C. striated and multinucleated D. voluntary control- somatic nervous system E. do not divide- new fibers are produced by stem cells called myosatellite cells a. functional unit: sarcomere 3. cardiac muscle cells A. striated- usually uninucleated B. called cardiocytes C. form branching networks connected at intercalated discs D. regulated by pacemaker cells a. functional unit: sarcomere 4. smooth muscle cells A. no striations- uninucleated B. small and tapered C. can divide and regenerate a. functional unit: smooth muscle myocyte  Neural Tissue 1. neural or nervous tissue A. specialized for conducting electrical signals B. rapidly senses internal or external environment C. processes information and controls responses D. neural tissue is concentrated in the central nervous system (CNS) a. brain and spinal cord b. functional unit: neuron 2. two types of neural cells A. neurons: perform electrical communication, dendrites and axon B. neuroglia: support neurons and repair and supply nutrients to neurons a. examples: I. astrocyte: supports and makes blood brain barrier, forms scar tissue II. oligodendrocyte: production of myelin III. ependymal cell: line spinal canal, ventricles in brain, aid in production of cerebral spinal fluid IV. microglia: phagocyte in brain 3. cell parts pf a neuron A. cell body a. soma b. contains nucleus and nucleolus and other organelles B. dendrites a. short branches extending from the cell body b. receives incoming signal C. axon (nerve fiber) a. long, thin extension of the cell body b. carries outgoing signal


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