Popular in Anatomy and Physiology I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Queener on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 3310 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Ray Larsen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
Reviews for Skin
yes! very good notes!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/30/15
Anatomy and Physiology 0 Structure and Function 0 Levels of organization I Chemical I Cellular I Tissue group of cells I Organ I System groups of organs I Organism a living organism 0 Tissue I Epithelial 0 Body surfaces form cavities 0 Lines hollow organs I Connective 0 Provides support and binds organs 0 Stores energy and fat I Muscular 0 Generates physical force 0 Generates body heat I Nervous 0 Detect changes in body and responds by generating responses 0 Systems I Integument I Skeletal I Muscular I Neural I Linings 0 Ecto outside 0 Endo inside 0 Meso in between 0 Organism I Motions of muscles 0 Extend abduct ex Skin Integumentary System skin and its accessory structures including hair nails and glands as well as blood vessels muscles and nerves 0 Epithelial tissue no blood supply 0 Gets nutrients from connective tissue underneath 0 Skin cutaneous membrane covers the body and is the largest organ 0 Area 2 sq meters and weighs 1011 pounds I 16 of body weight 0 54 mm thick I Thickest on heels I Thinnest on eyelids 0 Functions 0 Regulation of body temperature insulator 0 Blood reservoir connective tissue 0 Protection I Dead cells I Salty surface where bacteria cannot grow Cutaneous sensation nerve fibers 0 Excretion and absorbtion I Urea and sweat 0 Synthesis of vitamin D 0 Two types of skin 0 Thin hair covers all body regions except palms and palmar surfaces 0 Thick hairless covers palms palmar surfaces of digits and soles o Integument Structure 0 Layers I Outer Epithelial thin o Epidermis o Stratum Basale continuous cell division I Produces all other layers I High food source Stratum spinosum 810 layers of keratinocytes o Stratum granulosum includes keratinocytes o Stratum lucidum only in thick skin I Waterproof barrier o Stratum comeum composed of many sublayers 0 Cells I Keratinocytes vast majority produce keratin a tough and fibrous protein that provides protection I Melanocytes produce melanin pigment that protects from ultraviolet light damage I Langerhans cells immune response arise from red bone marrow I Merkel cells function in the sensation of touch along With the adjacent tactile discs I Inner dermis thicker connective tissue 0 Beneath is the subcutaneous layer hypodermis 0 Attaches skin to underlying tissues 0 Fat tissues insulator 0 Skin Color I Variations in skin color arises from differences in three pigments melanin carotene hemoglobin o Melanin a yellowred or brownblack pigment produced by melanocytes to absorb UV radiation 0 Amount of melanin causes skin color to vary I Tyrosinase converts tyrosine into pigment 0 Mutation causes lighter pigment I One of the most evident signs of human variation I Untraviolet radiation 0 Causes skin cancer 0 Stimulates synthesis of vitamin D Skin Markings Freckles and Moles tan to black aggregations of melanocytes o Freckles at melanized patches 0 Moles nevus elevated melanized patches with hair 0 Should be watched for changes in color diameter and contour 0 May suggest malignancy Hemangiomas Birthmarks patches of discolored skin caused by benign tumors of dermal blood capillaries 0 Some disappear in childhood 0 Capillary hemangiomas cavernous portwine stain Cyanosis blueness of skin from deficiency of oxygen in circulatory blood 0 Airway obstruction 0 Lung disease 0 Cold weather or cardiac arrest Erythema abnormal redness of skin due to dilated cutaneous vessels 0 Caused by exercise hot weather sun burn anger Pallor pale or ashen color when there is so little blood ow through the skin that the white color dermal collagen shows through 0 Caused by emotional stress low blood pressure circulatory shock cold anemia Albinism genetic lack of melanin that results in white hair 0 Inherited recessive tyroninase allele J aundice yellowing of skin and sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood 0 Cancer hepatitis cirrhosis compromised liver function 0 Hematoma bruise mass of clotted blood showing through Orange skin ingestion of large amounts of carotinoids Dermis connective tissue 0 Papillary region increases surface area for epidermis contact 0 Areolar CT full of blood vessels and is nutrient rich I Dermal papillae I Corpuscles of touch I Free nerve endings 0 Reticular Region 0 Dense irregular CT very little space I Hair fibers I Adipose I Nerves I Glands o Blister epidermis is separated from dermis 0 Lines of Cleavage tension lines in the skin that indicate the predominant directions of underlying collagen fibers Epidermal ridges re ect contours of the underlying dermal papillae and form the basis fingerprints and footprints 0 Increase the firmness of grip by increasing friction o Dermatoglyphics pattern of ridges Sensory Receptors 0 Lower receptors sense higher amounts of pressure 0 Higher receptors sense lower amounts of pressure Glands o Sebaceous I Hair follicles I Secrete oily substance sebum 0 Mile of proteins lipids and cholesterol 0 Coats hair 0 Keeps skin soft o Microbial inhibitors 0 Suderiferous Glands I Eccrine 0 Located widely 0 Secretes water and ions 0 Thermoregulation 0 Head first 0 Stress response 0 Palms I Apocrine puberty 0 Located in skin of the axillae groin areola and bearded facial regions 0 Formation begins with onset of puberty 0 Open during emotional sweating and sexual excitement 0 Many lipids along with water and electrolytes are excreted o Mammary glands I Modified apocrine glands 0 1520 lobes separated by adipose tissue I Function in lactation 0 Release is stimulated by oxytocin o Triggered by prolactin o Ceruminous Glands I Modified sweat glands I 13 of ear canal 39 Cerumen ear wax provides a sticky barrier that prevents entry of foreign bodies into the ear 0 Moist vs Dry 0 Single nucleotide change dry is recessive Epidermal Wound Healing 0 No blood supply so no bleeding 0 Epidermis grows and expands Deep Wound Healing 0 Clot formation in ammation 0 Scab 0 Proliferation of epithelium and deposition of new collagen more than beforescar 0 Maturation collagen fiber become more organized blood vessels return to normal 0 Fibrosis scar tissue formation 0 More dense collagen fibers 0 Less hair glands nerves 0 Less exible
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'