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Reviews for Psychology (28st-2nd)
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Date Created: 05/03/14
April 28 2014 Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio schedule Interval schedule Variable schedule Variable schedule Fixed ratio schedule 0 Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses 0 eg punch cards flight rewards Variable schedule 0 Reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses all centered around an average 0 Eg Slot machines Fixed interval schedule 0 The first response that occurs after a fixed time interval is reinforced 0 Eg Pop quizzes Variable interval schedule 0 Reinforcement is given for the first response that occurs after a variable time interval centered around an average 0 More consistent eg Contests on radio stations Observational learning 0 Occurs by observing the behavior Modeling 0 Human39s capacity to learn by observation The role of learning in dental fear 0 Women more than men 0 More younger people than older 0 Lower ed lower income Example 1 0 Neutral US UR I CS CR Observational learning Psych 101 Page 1 April 29 2014 Observational Learning The modeling process 0 Attention 0 Retention 0 Reproduction 0 Motivation Sef efficacy 0 People39s belief that they have the capability to perform behaviors that will produce a desired outcome Viewing media violence 0 Decreases viewers concerns about the suffering of victims 0 Habituates us to the sight of violence 0 Provides aggressive models Applications of observational learning 0 Learning academic and sports related skills enhancing pro socia behavior 0 Addressing global social problems literacy AIDS Adaptive brain 0 Learning involves multiple brain regions and neural circuits I Hypothalamus and dopamine pathways regulate our ability to experience reward I Cerebellum plays a role in acquiring classically conditioned movements 0 Amygdala I Plays role in acquiring conditioned fears I Frontal lobes becomes less involved as we gain experience at novel tasks Cognition and Conditioning Insight 0 The sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem Kohler and insight 0 Sudden perception of relationships allowing for rapid problem solving 0 Eg Chimpanzee with bananas and crates Cognitive map 0 A mental representation of spatial layout 0 Eg quot an expectation of what leads to whatquot Tolman and Latent learning 0 Learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until later when there is an incentive to perform Memory Information that is retained longer than the stimulus that created it Model of memory 0 Boxes in you head Atkinson amp Schifrin 1968 I Sensory memory I Shortterm memory Psych 101 Page 1 I Longterm memory Sensory memory o Briefly holds incoming sensory information we receive through our senses I Sensory register initial info processors III Iconic store visual information 9 Capacity is huge 0 Durations lt5 second III Echoic store auditory information 9 Capacity is huge 0 Duration is 24 seconds Psych 101 Page 2 April 30 2014 Memory Short term memory 0 Temporarily holds a limited amount of information 0 Memory codes I Visual mental images I Phonological sounds I Semantic meaning I Motor patterns of movement 0 George magic number I 7 2 59 I Chunking III Combining individual items into larger units of meaning I Interference provides evidence for 2030 seconds 0 Working memory I Auditory code I Visual code I Semantic code I Motor code Working memory 0 Temporarily stores and processes information 0 Phonological loop I Stores mental representation of sounds 0 Visuospatialsketchpad I Stores visual and spatial information Long term memroy 0 Our library of more durable stored memories I Unlimited storage capacity I Memories can endure for a lifetime I Debatable Serial position effect 0 The ability to recall an time is influenced by the items position in a series I Primary effect III Superior recall of early items III Evidence for LTM long term memory 9 Semantic errors big for large I Regency effect III Superior recall of recent items III Evidence for STM 9 Auditory errors top for pop Notes May 2nd 330 4L2 SAV 260 May 5th 430520 GWN 301 MGH 228 clue 630 Psych 101 Page 1 May 1 2014 Memory Rehearsal 0 Maintenancerote I Simple rote repetition I Keeps information active in working memory I Not an optima method to transfer information into longterm memory I Spacing effect 0 Elaborative rehearsal I Focusing on the meaning of information or expanding on it in some way Elaborative techniques 0 Levels of processing 0 Mnemonics I A technique for organizing information so it can more easily be recalled Explicit memory 0 Semantic memory I General factual knowledge 0 Episodic memory I Has to do with personal experiences Implicit memory 0 Procedural memory Storage Schemas 0 A cognitive structure which provides a meaningful framework for organizing information I Aid in encoding I Store the gist I Aid in retrieval I Schema III A pattern of knowledge describing what is typical or frequent in a particular situation I Script III A we structured sequence of events associated with a highly familiar activity Associative network 0 Activation of one network leads to a spreading activation of related concepts I Priming III The activation of one concept or one unit of info by another Psych 101 Page 1 May 2 2014 Friolay May 2 2 14 11232 AM Associative network o Activation of one network leads to spreading activation of related concepts Two methods of testing include o Recall task o Recognition task Factors that impact retrieval o Associationspriming o Cue dependence theory I Retrieval cues restraining the past Memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding g I Context dependent memory I State dependent memory III Internal cues Misinformation o Loftus et Al I Smashescontact Psych 101 Page 1 Mother has bbeen conitnually nagging her mother about messy room Finally daughter goes ahead and cleas entire room stops mother naging Given the fact the withdrawal of mothers nagging serve to strenghten daughters room cleaning behviour Mother39s nagging is Edward rats in maze Rats developed cognitive map what is this called What did we call this concept Latinent learning
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