Week 2 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Chapters 1 amp 2 Continued Structuredlaboratory observation observe participants in lab or elsewhere under carefully created conditions 0 Pros I Easier to study infrequent behaviors if setting up situations where behaviors come about I Situation is the same for all participants allowing you to compare them I Better able t determine causes of behavior I The more control the better we can talk about cause 0 Conamp I Not as realistic so it s harder to generalize to the real world Psychophysiological methods examine relationship between physiological responses and behavior 0 Heart Rate very sensitive to emotional response I So if an infant s heart rate decreases you can tell that the infant is interested in something 0 EEG electroencephalogram measures brain wave activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp I This enables for us to look for stimuli o fMRI using powerful magnetic field produces detailed 3D image of the brain I It is very expensive resulting in only small samples of participants 0 Pros I Very useful for infants toddlers who cannot verbally report emotionally cognitive experiences I Can allow direct look at how brain functions reacts and develops 0 Con I Hard to interpret exactly what physiological changes mean because they can mean many things Ex an infants heart rate decreases but could be because the gained interested in a passerby rather than what is being presented to them Developmental Research Designs review on pages 3341 of book Crosssectional design most common way of studying development 0 Children in different ages groups measured at the same time I Compare the memory of a group of 7 9 and 11 year olds 0 Pro I Measuring each person once so it is fast and inexpensive to conduct 0 Conamp I Cohort effect effect of being born in one particular historical context Cohort group of people born at the same time exposed to similar cultural historical contexts while growing up Ex A cohort of 20 year olds from the 1950s compared to a cohort of 20 year olds from the 1990s would have different opinions when discussing sexual health matters due to how it was viewed in society at those separate times I No information about development of individual participants because only measure that person once Longitudinal design 0 Same group of participants measured at different ages 0 Measured multiple times I Test child s memory when they are 7 9 and 11 0 Pros I Can study development of individual participants I Can examine relationships between early and later behaviors I No concern about cohort effects I Crossgenerational problem hard to generalize to groups that are not a part of that cohort I Expensive and timeconsuming because have to follow people for a long time I Initial questions measures may become uninteresting inadequate as it was in the beginning I Participants may be lost over time I Participants may be affected by repeated testing so much practice Sequential design 0 Combines crosssectional and longitudinal approaches I Follows 2 or more cohorts for short longitudinal period Ex memory test comparing participants twice over 4 years 0 Pros I Can separate effects due to development cohort effects and reduce cross generational problem 0 Conamp I More costly and time consuming than crosssectional design I Can be very complex Basic Issues in Human Development Nature vs nurture which has more impact on development our genes or our environment Activity vs passivity are children active or passive in their own development 0 Active children have control I Children act a certain way which elicits certain responses that causes a child to develop a certain way Continuity vs discontinuity do we develop gradually or in sudden abrupt stages 0 Continuity quantitative change change in amount 0 Discontinuity qualitative change type of change I Ex a babies communication starts with a cry then change to a coo then changes to babble and then changes to speaking o If a theorist is a STAGE theorist then they are talking about discontinuity Universality vs contextspecificity do we all develop in the same way or is development different for each person or different groups cultures families or time periods Developmental Psychology Today Less extreme positions most people are in the middle of developmental issues 0 Development is interplay 0 Person and environment are active 0 There are qualitative and quantitative changes Most are eclectic More emphasis on minitheories that try to explain one specific aspect of development 0 Now specializing in one area
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