Women and Ethnicity; The Scientific Method; Biased Opinions on Men and Women
Women and Ethnicity; The Scientific Method; Biased Opinions on Men and Women WMST 4600
Popular in Psychology of Women 4600
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WMST 4600 at University of Georgia taught by Malissa A. Clark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Women 4600 in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
WMST 4600 Week 2 08252015 Women and Ethnicity The WhitePrivilege Concept the idea that people who are Caucasian often take for granted their unearned advantage invisible advantages WhiteasNormative Concept white is the standard race in our culture but others are de ned by their races USCentered Nationalism the idea that America is taking an egocentric standpoint and comparing everyone else to us Potential Problems and Biases in Current Research 0 The Scienti c Method 0 Identify and state the problem 0 Design a research study 0 Measure the variables Constructs things that are not observable on the surface a Example judging people s happiness levels 0 Analysis of the data 0 Conclusions from research 0 The scienti c method is a very objective way to obtain the truth we assume that it is not in uenced by the scientist s beliefs values etc o It is known that most studies are not ideal o Formulating the Hypothesis 0 Using a biased theory 0 Formulating a hypothesis on the basis of unrelated research 0 Asking questions only from certain content areas 0 Designing the Study 0 Selecting the operational definitions the researcher must gure out how to measure the construct 0 Choosing the participants 0 Choosing the researcher 0 Including confounding variables 0 Performing the Study o In uencing the outcome through researcher expectancy o In uencing the outcome through participants expectancies Stereotype threat the idea that you are nervous about essentiay con rming a stereotype that your group is known for o Interpreting the Data 0 Emphasizing statistical signi cance rather than practical signi cance determining whether the results are true results or results gained just by chance The more people you have in your study the closer you ll get to a statistical signi cance 0 Ignoring alternate explanations o Misinterpreting correlational data Correlation is not causation just because two things are related doesn t mean one caused the other 0 Making inappropriate generalizations A Dangerous Assumption 0 If we nd a quotsex difference in something that means all men are one way and all women are another way 0 Statistically when we nd a difference between the two groups it s much smaller than people assume it to be 0 Communicating the Findings 0 Leaving out analyses that show gender similarities 0 Choosing a title that focuses on gender differences 0 Journal editors rejecting studies that show gender similarities Journals want a signi cant result differences 0 Secondary sources emphasizing gender differences instead of gender similarities Critical Thinking and the Psychology of Women 0 Ask thoughtful questions about what you see or hear a Look for potential biases at each step of the research process 0 Determine whether conclusions are supported by the evidence that has been presented 0 Suggest alternative interpretations of the evidence Chapter 2 Biased Representations of Women and Men Stereotypes beliefsassumptions about a groups characteristics can be positive or negative generalize a characteristic about every single person in that group Prejudice an emotional reaction or attitude towards a group Discrimination biased behavior towards a group 0 Hopkins v Price Waterhouse 1987 only woman among 88 candidates up for partner she had a very good interview and everyone thought she would get it but she didn t the reason she didn t get the job was because she quotwasn t feminine enoughquot Hopkins won the case Invisibility of Women in Historical Accounts history on women didn t exist until the 60 s research shows in history women are just ignored and invisible 0 Due to the fact that many women s place was in the home in history 0 Textbooks in schools all across the country showed there was more representation of men than women in history books through writing and pictures Philosophers Representation of Women philosophers that have the most recognition depicted women as inferior to men Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology women seen as a piece of man Adam and Eve another example is the sanctity of women Greek goddesses Mary Gender Biases in Language male as the normative referent female being a subset of that 0 Example Dr vs Female Dr quotyou guysquot Gender Bias in the Media Sarah Palin being described as the quotsexy candidatequot Women being portrayed in a violent way Princesses in Disney movies Gender Bias in Media 0 Women are often underrepresented and if they are present they are often inaudible 0 Women are more often shown doing work in the house rather than outside the house 0 Men are often treated more seriously than women especially in politics 0 Women s bodies are used differently than men s bodies 0 Women of color are underrepresented and when shown often in a very biased and stereotypical way Black women are shown more often than other women of color 0 Lower class social women are underrepresented and shown in a very biased way 0 STEM Science Technology Engineering and Math People s Beliefs About Women and Men 0 The Content of Stereotypes 0 Communion Communal emphasizes a relationship between you and other people Terms associated with this being gentlewarm Stereotypically feminine 0 Agency Agentic a concern for your own self interest Terms associated with this selfcon dent competitive Stereotypically masculine Often times the stereotypes are implicitbiases that you don t overtly demonstrate in your actions but you hold them in the back of your mind
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