Psychology 202: Development 2
Psychology 202: Development 2
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Saturday May 3, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.
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Date Created: 05/03/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Get plenty of sleep Science has shown that sleep helps create memory while you sleep How do you expect to remember everything the night before the test if you don39t sleep and engrave it all in your brain Space out your studying and make you get sleep in order to make those new connections so you can do great on your next Psychology midterm Tuesday April 29 2014 Corresponding Readings p 365419 Vocabulary Genetics DNA tells our bodies how our cells are to be made in our bodies Epigenetics the turning on or off of some genes known as gene expression within our bodies based on the environment an individual is exposed to This is why in twins one can have cancer while the other could remain healthy They both have the same genome but different genes are actually expressed Homosexuality Because one of the main purposes our genes is to be passed on homosexuality is not likely to be genetically selected for There are some theories one being the environment that the fetus is exposed to in the womb When a mother is pregnant with a male she produces antigens in order to protect her from the negative affects that would come from the testosterone The antigens stay even after the boy is born and if she has more than one boy then they are exposed to less testosterone than the first boy and more of the antigens that are being produced There is less testosterone throughout the key development stages the more boys a woman has and the chances of homosexuality increases Implication of Brain Not Being Developed until 25 1 An imbalance of heart and brain 2 Risk Taking Behavior 3 Minors and Crime Responsibility 4 Peer In uence Risk Taking Behavior All different types of risky behavior alcohol drugs etc all peak between 1620 years of age Reasons impulse control reward evolutionary adaptive peer in uence Impulse Control Reward Reward systems are at their peak at the adolescent age There is a peak of dopamine production during risky behavior and it just feels better Recall the card picking task children will pick from the risky decks Evolutionary Adaptive Crime and Minors Brains are not fully developed until the age of 25 and yet we start using the justice system for people at age 18 Is epigenetics also a factor In the courtroom arguments will be made that it39s not him it39s his upbringing genes epigenetics what is there left to blame 9 Some metaphysical self Peer In uence peer in uence is more important than a child39s parents after the age of five and in the past peer in uence has been underestimated Experiments Dutch Famine 19441945 18000 people died during the Dutch Famine as a result of a harsh winter the Dutch do not usually experience and the Nazi blockade that was occurring at the same time This provided a natural experiment that scientists could use to study starvation Children born during the famine were unsurprisingly underweight When the children grew up they were more likely to experience higher than normal levels of diabetes obesity cardiovascular disease and psychological disease This is because their bodies were used to not having food when they were in their mother39s womb When they grew up they had plenty to eat and their bodies weren39t made to handle it However their children also suffered from these diseases as well as their grandchildren Changes in DNA were actually discovered quite recently Emotional Recognition Test both teens and adults were given the test while in an fMRI machine All the of adults responded correctly for each emotion show while teens tended to only get half of them right The fMRI showed that when adults determined what emotion a face was displaying the frontal logic and reasoning part of the brain lit up For teens the emotion portion of the brain was more active The brain grown from bottom up inside out and the prefrontal cortex where executive functioning is located is the last region of the brain to develop Epigenetics amp Mice this is not in the lecture but was talked about in class The experiment started out with two groups of mice The first groups were exposed to a chemical to smell and then were shocked The second group of mice received the same treatment with a different chemical Two generations after the first group had a natural fear of these chemicals still had a natural reaction of fear to these chemicals There were changes found is the DNA evidence that epigenetics is constantly working People To Know Iudith Rich Harris was kicked out of the Harvard graduate school for not having the attitude a Harvard graduate student needed Later she wrote a paper on peer in uence that won her an award form the man who kicked her out of the graduate program Wrote a book called The Nurture Assumption which made three main points 1 Much apparent parental in uence is due to genes 2 Other parental in uence is restricted to behavior at home 3 Peers have tremendous in uence William Damon Stage Model of Friendship Level 1 age 46 Social Engagement Handy Playmate Sharing A friend is someone to play and do activities with Level 2 ages 810 Social Engagement and Support Mutual Trust and Assistance A Best Friend who you are going to be friends with Forever Level 3 ages 1115 Social Engagement and Support and understanding Loyalty Intimacy Someone who understands you better than anyone and who would stand up for you Erikson Stages of Psychological Development 1 Hope 01 years 2 Will 24 years 3 Purpose 46 years 4 Competence 713 years 5 Fidelity 1424 years 6 Love 2540 years 7 Care 4564 years 8 Wisdom 65 years Dunbar Recall Dunbar s Number About 150 Dunbar s Circle of Friends 1 5 people closest people to you a significant other counts as two 2 10 people will stay home with you when you are sick 3 35 people a group of friends to play sports etc 4 100 people acquaintances
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