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Lecture notes for week of Aug 24-28

by: Eva Notetaker

Lecture notes for week of Aug 24-28 STAT 110 - 005

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Statistics > STAT 110 - 005 > Lecture notes for week of Aug 24 28
Eva Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
Wilma J. Sims (P)

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About this Document

These are the LECTURE notes for Professor Sims lectures this week. These are strictly her spoken words and should be used along with the power points! hope this helps!!
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
Wilma J. Sims (P)
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eva Notetaker on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 110 - 005 at University of South Carolina taught by Wilma J. Sims (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Statistical Reasoning in Statistics at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/30/15
What is stats The science of collecting classifying presenting and interpreting data Where do we collect the data from Individual The object that is described by our data set Variable the characteristic of the individual which you are interested in Can take the form of different values Can vary from individual to individual Example student data base at a university date of birth major GPA various data depending on the individual and various individuals Observational Study the researcher only observes and measures the individual but nothing is done to try to influence that study the purpose of an observational study is to describe a group of individuals Examples a child psychologist observing and recording aggressive behavior amongst a sample of fifth graders Does not interfere with their natural behavior or actions Sample study type of observational survey where the researcher selects a group of individuals and asks them to respond to a question or list of questions group of individuals of which are being studied is called a sample Examples presidential candidates survey sometimes results displayed visually on television and also in print in the form of a graph or illustrated representation Population the entire group of individuals about which we want information not always possible or fees able Sample a part of the population from which you actually collect the data from used to make assumptions and draw conclusions about the population Census sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample Obtains a list of 3456 undergrads Mails survey to 250 Receives 104 back Population 3456 Sample 104 Experiment deliberately imposes treatment on individual to try to influence the variables of interest Often conducted to find a possible causeeffect relationship Example medical studiespatients are given drugs at various dosage levels to study effectivenesscontinued in blackboard PowerPoint sides In a test of the effectiveness Individuals the adult subjects Variable of interest LDL cholesterol levels Sample 47 adult subjects Population isn39t directly stated Probably all adults Type of study the garlic pills are a TREATMENT making this an experiment study Data sourcesobservational studysample surveyexperiment Termsindividuals and variablepopulation and sample Example 2 60 patients with carpal tunnel are randomly dividedcontinued in blackboard PowerPoint sides This study is an EXPERIMENT Reef answer of the day observational study CH 2 Collecting data We want to take a sample from the population We want the objects in the sample to be representative of the population You want your sample to be representative of your population if the population data shows about 50 male 50 female you need to have a sample group of around 50 male and 50 female Samples Good and Bad Bad samples collected with biased sampling The sample is systematically chosen to produce a certain outcome examples Convenience sampling selecting the samples which are most convenient Volunteer response sample individuals volunteering themselves as a part of the sample If a researcher makes the choiceConvenience Sample If we are interested in finding out how many people have jobs we might go to a shopping mall and ask people passing by if they are employed Is not representative of all types of people only the type of people who are able to be at the mall at the specific time and place you are If people make the choiceVountary Response A preelection coverage is taking place on TV and a commercial provides a number to call in to 39vote39 for or against a certain candidate being interviewed This is biased because depending on the program or station only a select group of viewers will have access to the information being provided and answer for only a small representation of the population of total voters Random Sampling letting chance select the individuals who will be in the representation of the sample Easiest technique of random sampling Simple random sampling SRS Collecting data in such a way that every individual in the sample has the same chance of selection and being chosen A simple random sample is selected using random digits Digits are just from the 10 digits 09 they are a string of digits that have two properties 1steach place in string has to have an equal chance of being any of those ten digits 09 2ndentries have to be independent from each other To choose a random sample 1st We have to label the individuals in our sample Numeric label to every individual in the population Have to have the same number of digits 2nd choose labels from the data set Labels can be done in any manner customary to use alphabetical order Random digits table digits appear in RANDOM groupings of 5 columns to make the table easier to read As you are selecting your labelsskip any repeat numbers within the columnrow if you get to the end of a row and you don39t have enough entries for your data set return to the beginning of the row below and continue Chapter 4 what do samples tell us If the data describes the populationparameter fixed numbers we often don39t know the value of the parameter Unknown If the data describes a samplestatistic computed value but can often vary from sample to sample Changing Proportions are estimating characteristics of the individuals within a certain population Refer to the specific characteristic as quotsuccessquot Denote population parameter with p More than likely the population parameter or proportion is unknown We take a SRS from our population of size n with p success pHATcount of success in the sample OVER n We hope to estimate the value of p based on pHAT 25505 one value sample proportion often referred to a point estimate of the population proportion pHAT is the symbol quotpquot with a A over the top


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