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Week One Notes

by: TigerGirl2019

Week One Notes BIO_SC 1500 - 01

Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
David Schulz

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About this Document

These are the typed notes for the first week of lecture. These notes are in my own words and are not directly copied from the presentation. Also included are some of the points and explanations dis...
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
David Schulz
Class Notes
DNA, Nucleic Acids, RNA, Biological Science, typed notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by TigerGirl2019 on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO_SC 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Schulz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 08/30/15
Bio 1500 Week 1 Essential Information of Biochemistry Nucleic Acids Structure and Function 0 The same molecular building blocks are used in all the life on the planet 0 The structure of these building blocks stems from the fundamental rules of chemistry bonds and interactions of chemicals 0 Structure is equal to function 3D structure and bonds An altered structure is equal to an altered function 0 The structures of molecules is speci c to participate and commence chemical reactions such as lowering the activation energy of reactions Major Biological Molecules 0 Nucleic acids 0 Proteins 0 Carbohydrates 0 Lipids Monomer and Polymer Relationship 0 Monomers are the building blocks Or think of the links in a metal chain I g l 3 f 0 Polymers are covalently linked mo 0 rs Think of the chain itself 0 Dehydration synthesis also known as condensation water is removed from the two combining monomers to covalently link the two molecules a hydrogen H and a hydroxyl OH group combine to form water and covalently link the monomers 0 Hydrolysis water is added to break the covalent bonds to produce energy This energy can be used to drive reactions Central Dogma Important ThemeIdea of Bio 0 DNA gt Transcription gt mRNA gt Translation gt Protein 0 The above process is the foundation of all life as it produces proteins that power the processes of organisms Nucleic Acids Major Points 0 A nucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides monomers 0 RNA and DNA are the two nucleic acids residing in cells 0 DNA stores and transmits the information for biological process and RNA stores some information and has the ability to drive reactions and fold into shapes 98 of DNA is used to drive biological processes Nucleotide Structure 0 Nucleotide phosphate group 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base O O 1539 CHEDIH g on OH H I llh EE Deoxyri h use Ribose and DNA are different at the red highlighted letters Ribose has a hydroxyl group and deoxyribose has a hydrogen The hydroxyl groups makes RNA more reactive and allows it to cause chemical reactions Nitrogenous bases Pyrimidines Qytosine Qracil Ihymine smaller one ringed molecule Purines guanine and Adenine larger molecule and has two rings Nucleotides polymerize to nucleic acids with condensation reactions A phosphate group joins to a phosphate group by releasing water This is also called a phosohodiester linkage This forms the directional phosphate backbone The backbone is orientated in a 539 to 339 direction Primes or 39 indicate the which carbon it is in the sugar Fun fact the genes are approximately 1500050000 coding sequences long to code for proteins It stores and transmits biological information Carries info for growth and reproduction The language of this info is contained in the sequences of bases The secondary structure of DNA is the double helix The strands of DNA run antiparallel to each other 539 to 339 and 339 to 539 The nitrogenous bases of nucleotides project out from the sugar phosphate backbone The complimentary bases from each strand are held together by hydrogen bonds The structure of DNA is important for effective replication of a cell because only one copy can be made of a strand of DNA Replication Process Steps 0 The strands separate o The corresponding bases of the template strand are paired to the bases of the new strand Polymerization DNA is gradually unwound and the two daughter strands stem from where the DNA has been unzipped The unzipping occurs gradually to ensure replications do not occur in other areas When store DNA is held in coils The coils then wind around a histone protein to produce supercoils to conserve space DNA must be unwound to be accessed for the production of proteins DNA is not a catalytic molecule it is less reactive than RNA and is resistant to chemical degradation Important Check in Knowledge of DNA Structure and Function 0 Naming three chemical features of DNA with their functional 0 O O 0 signi cance DNA has an OH and H group unlike RNA with OH and OH This is where the quotdeoxyquot in deoxyribose is incorporated This difference is what gives DNA chemical stability ability to store biological information and causes it to be stable and robust over time This also preserves the order of nucleotides and the proper coding of information Phosphodiester bonds make the backbone of DNA stable Hydrogen bonds of complimentary nucleotides allow for separation and replication 0 They also make DNA easier to access for repeated replication and transcription 0 The easy breakage of hydrogen bonds provides delity of complimentary nucleotide pairing Is a ribose sugar Has a uracil nitrogenous base instead of thymine RNA can form complex structures and hairpins Loop of the hairpin structure is formed to expose certain bases to form a catalytic environment to promote reactions with other molecules similar to enzymes 0 RNA is called a ribozyme when it behaves such as this RNA is single stranded and capable of selfreplication rRNA is related in protein synthesis and is wound with proteins to produce a ribosome mRNA messenger RNA tRNA transfer RNA delivers nucleotides to ribosomes Part 2 of Nucleic Acids O 0 Central Dogma RNA polymerase catalyzes the production of RNA from DNA The template strand of DNA and RNA transcript are held together by H bonds Eukaryotic Promoters Ex TATA Box Speci c places in DNA where transcription starts RNA polymerase binds a bit before the promoter39s location Promoter is not different from the rest of DNA and is only a speci c sequence


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