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Week One Notes

by: Nia

Week One Notes AN_SCI 3254 - 01

Physiology of Domestic Animals
Donald Spiers

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Notes from the first week (8/24-8/28)
Physiology of Domestic Animals
Donald Spiers
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AN_SCI 3254 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Donald Spiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Domestic Animals in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 08/30/15
AnSci3254 Week One Notes Domestic Animal Physiology Physiology The study of function and how things work together 0 Basis of nutrition 0 Interaction and integration I Take info in analyze it incorporate it and send it on 0 Fixed uctuations and regular irregularities Living organisms are in constant state of dynamic change 0 Organization remains over time 0 Living organism self sustaining organization homeostasis l Mille Interieur Internal Environment Homeostasis l Walter B Cannon came up with homeostasis l Father of modern physiology 0 Feedback 0 Positive Making things happen I Often trying to get rid of things 0 Negative Controlling and adapting to situations I Regulating at a certain level I Trying to keep things constant 0 Ex A ball is being thrown at you I Positive Moving out of the way I Negative Letting the ball hit you and adapting to the hit 0 How to maintain a constant state 0 Rates net gains and net loss gtgt total body balance I Speed at which things come and go 0 Pool exchanges within the body 0 Ex Cholesterol Exchange l Gain l Diet 3 gday from animal fat egg yolk etc I Synthesis 10 gday by liver adrenals skin etc I Exchange l Stored in artery cells I Incorporated into steroid hormones l Breakdown and excretion of bile in feces l Cholesterol is stored in bile sometimes I Diabetes Mellitus bile duct obstruction produces increased plasma cholesterol 0 3 Possible States 0 Loss greater than gain negative balance I Ex hypothermia hypochloric O 0 Loss then than gain positive balance Not always good but needed to grow EX Obesity Gain equals loss stable state Homeostasis Energy Capacity to do work Occurs whenever there is change in the system 0 Forms of Energy LightAtomic Not for living animals Chemical Can be converted to other forms 0 O O O 0 Can be taken in and used by people and animals Mechanical Heart pumping Electrical Generated by peopleanimals Heat All energy conversions release heat Important for temp Cells can t use heat alone for work All chemical conversions produce heat as the final product Any energy conversion causes a decrease in usable energy Forms of energy out ow from the body Chemical Heat I Work mechanical energy Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is neither created nor destroyed Also known as the law of conservation of energy Energy can only be transferred I Can t be produced Second Law of Thermodynamics All order goes toward disorder Energy conversion decrease in usable energy Heat is the most disordered form of energy I Can only be moved Growth Taking disorder and making something of it I Short term 0 Energy Transfer Within Cells Mitochondria Couples ATP production with energy release 0 Main spot for energy transfer Aerobic energy transfers Number varies with energy expenditure of cell l determines who metabolically active a cell is Cells with lots of ATP cardiac and skeletal muscle have lots of mitochondria I Brown Fat I Found in newborns people and animals I Very vascular l Lots of mitochondria and blood ow causes brown color I Lost over time I High metabolism I Not in pigs or birds I 95 of ATP is produced here I 100 of ATP breakdown occurs here 0 1 mole glucose 02 gtgt C02 H20 686 kcal released energy I calorie heat required to raise 1C in 1 gram of water I In test tube all released as heat I In cell some released as heat and some captured as ATP 0 Energy release coupled to energy carrier molecules ATP l Primarily ATP adenosine triphosphate l Adenine nucleotide base Ribose 5 carbon sugar 3 Phosphates l Each transferred phosphate also transfers 7 kcal I ATP H20 lt gt ADP Pi 7 kcal l ATP molecule only exits for seconds I Not used for storage I Used for transfer in the body always moving Efficiency of the Process 0 In animals very efficient I 55 energy from glucose goes to ATP l 45 energy from glucose goes to Heat 0 Car burning gas inefficient l 25 energy used for car movement I 75 energy goes to heat 0 The difference in animals I Related to the oxidation process breakdown in presence of oxygen l Slower process I Takes 2030 steps I Requires enzymes catalysts needed for a reaction I Cristae catalyze oxidative reactions l 0ccurs at lower temps l ATP generated to capture energy I In the air yields C02 H20 heat light I In the body gets C02 H20 heat 0xidative Phosphorylation the attachment of phosphate to ADP in the presence of oxygen ATP Production in mitochondria 0 Nutrient breakdown in Krebs Cycle produces hydrogen atoms and carried to the inner membrane by hydrogen carriers 0 Hydrogen atoms split into hydrogen ions electrons and protons at the membrane 0 Electron transport chain moves electrons through the membrane I Found along the inner membrane 0 Energy is released as the electrons move to lower energy levels through the chain l Energy transferred through cytochromes l Cytochromes change color as electrons move through them I Iron containing proteins 0 Released energy moves hydrogen into inter membrane space 0 Hydrogen combines With 02 to produce H20 metabolic water 0 Hydrogen ows through the channels to the matrix Channel ow activate the ATP synthase in the matrix and causes energy to be released I 7 kcal required to yield ATP from ADP and Phosphate l 3 ATP produced per pair of hydrogen atoms ATP is produced from ATP synthase 0 Absence of 02 results in less ATP and leads to cell death I Cyanide Action on final cytochrome of chain l BlocksStops ETC I Results in no electron transport chain and no ATP 99 of 02 used by the cell is used to produce ATP l Breath oxygen to make ATP 0 Scientists 0 Luigi Galvani 1700s I Frog muscle experiment I We have electricity in our bodies 0 Heinrich Weiland 1877 1957 l Toadstool Poisons l Structure of Steroids O Otto Warburg 1883 1970 l Sea Urchins l Cyanide and oxygen bind to iron 0 David Keilin 1960 s I Moths l Cytochromes and electron electricity 0 Fritz Lipmann 18991986 I ATP Cycle John Walker amp Paul Boyer 1997 l ATP motorsynthase Body Electricity 0 Electricity A physical phenomenon associated With stationary or moving electrons or protons 0 Electricity is miniaturized so we don t shock each other 0 Charges are separated by the thickness of membrane 5 nanometers O O O O O Voltages are too small to get a shock 01 volt Cell Structure and Function Cell Composition 0 Water 85 0 Protein 10 Structure 0 Lipid 2 Energy Storage 0 Carbohydrate 15 Energy 0 Inorganic Matter 15 0 Cell Membrane double layered lipid molecules With embedded protein 0 Semipermeable dynamic l Permeable to fat soluble substances l Ex 02 C02 Alcohol Fatty acids 0 Composition l Protein glycoprotein lipoprotein l Lipid phospholipid l Prevents most polar molecules from passing through the membrane l Sodium Potassium Ions I No chemical bonds linking phospholipids very uid l Free movement uid like membrane 0 Hydrophobic hates water in the middle 0 Hydrophilic loves water outside 0 Water I Not lipid soluble l Polar l Passes across because it s small and has kinetic energy I Water channels and pores l Aquaporins O Glucose is carried across membranes via facilitated transport carrier or transporter proteins 0 Oxidative Stress 0 Oxidative Stress l Oxygen prime oxidizing agent I Oxidizing Agent element that accepts an electron oxidant l Because it gains electrons electron acceptor it is being reduced l The element Whose electron was taken has been oxidized 0 Free Radical An atom or group of atoms With at least on unpaired electron l Damage cells and accelerate the progression of cancer I Unstable and very reactive l Small animals have higher metabolic rates and more free radicals 0 Antioxidants l Terminate free radical chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibit other oxidation reactions l Oxidized themselves 0 Coenzyme l Enhance the action of enzymes 0 Protein 0 Manufacture protein most energy expensive process in body 0 5 Types of Membrane Proteins l Structural l Pumps use active transport to move ions across membrane l Channel pathways for water and water soluble compounds I Made of proteins l Receptors bind with neurotransmittershormones l Enzymes catalyze reactions 0 Transport Mechanisms 0 Passive Transport no energy needed I Diffusion l Diffusion of gas 02 and C02 or ions from a region of high concentration to low concentration high molecular motion to low molecular motion l ex heat ow I Outcome is equal concentration throughout medium I Determinants of Diffusion Rate Membrane Permeability Permeable more diffusion Concentration Gradient Greater gradient more diffusion Electrical Charge Difference Larger difference more diffusion Kinetic Energy or Pressure Difference Bigger difference more diffusion Surface Area More surface area more diffusion Molecular Weight Size More weight less diffusion DistanceThickness More distance less diffusion l Osmosis Movement of a solvent usually water to a region of higher concentrated solute which cannot cross the membrane l Less concentrated gt More concentrated l Flow is altered by pressure on the solution I Osmotic Pressure Pressure needed on one side to prevent osmotic ow of water across from a compartment of pure water Doesn t exist in nature I Only an index of the water absorbing power of a solution l Way to rank solutions I Characteristics of solutions with higher osmotic pressure I Greater number of particles l Lower water concentration because there are more particles l Greater osmotic ow water gtgtgt solution I Greater pressure needed prevent osmotic ow I osmotic l Isosmotic Two solutions with the same osmotic pressure I Hyperosmotic More particles l Hyposmotic Fewer particles I Only have meaning in reference to each other Everything depends on what it is being compared to l Tonic effective osmotic pressure of a solution relative to blood plasma l Isotonic Isosmotic with blood plasma l 09 NaCl solution I Animals are generally isotonic l Hypotonic lower osmotic pressure than blood plasma l 06 NaCl solution I Hypertonic higher osmotic pressure than blood plasma l EX Red Blood Cell I RBC in distilled water hypotonic solution I Relative to distilled water I Starts out isotonic equal l Hyper osmotic compared to water I Hypotonic before bursting 13786 I RBC in 15 NaCl solution hypertonic solution I Shrinks uid gets sucked out Crenation l Relative to NaCl solution 0 Active Transport requires energy ATP l Movement against the electrical or pressure gradients l Energy needed usually from the breakdown of ATP l NaK Pump most important I Moves 3 Na out of cell 2 K into cell for each molecule of ATP hydrolyzed I In a typical nerve cell l Extracellular out of the cell l Na 144 mmolesliter l K 44 mmolesliter l Intracellular in the cell l Na 15 mmolesliter l K 150 mmolesliter I More Na outside the cell and K inside the cell I 1040 of the total energy used by cell is to transport Na amp K ions across membranes l Freshwater fish use active transport to bring in salts to combat the lost salts and water intake I If this doesn t happen the fish would burt because of excessive water intake l Other things transported by active mechanisms l Calcium l Hydrogen l Amino Acids l Glucose Large Scale Movement Of Substances Between Cells ATP is required for everything 0 Endocytosis Plasma membrane engulfs solid or liquid matter 0 Phagocytosis Intake of are particulate matter or organisms into the cell l Specialized phagocytic cells I Macrophages found in walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue l Ex alveoli of lungs l Lysosomes single membrane sac within cell with digestive enzymes proteolytic and lipolytic l Breakdown the particles so the macrophages can digest them I Stress increases corticosteroid release from adrenals l Suppresses macrophage function to produce respiratory disease I Cortisol Stress hormone Good short term gives energy but bad long term sickness ulcers 0 Pinocytosis Intake of minute particles such as solutes and uids l Major means for protein passage into cells I Young animals take in whole proteins l Adult animals take in amino acids 0 Exocytosis Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and releases contents into extracellular uid 0 Pushing things out 0 Ex Intestinal goblet cell secrete mucus Nerve cells produce chemical messages


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