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# Week 1 - PHYS 1750 Notes PHYS 1750

Toledo

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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1750 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Lawrence Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physics in Physics 2 at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 08/30/15

Lecture 1 Saturday July 25 2015 1037 PM Introduction Instructor Professor Lawrence Anderson Huang introduction Text 1 1 particularly 1 5amp1 6 A human endevoor to determine the character of nature To manipulate natu re andl to satisfy curiosity Mlodels of reality that are always subject to change We cannot know reality directly consciousness creates maps and models from what it senses and what it logically dleduces elationships between observable phenomena Examples lNlewton39s laws lNlewton s Ilaw of gravityEl the laws of thermodynamics Law of radioactive decay etc Q Firm From Dio l 2 chem quotS 39 I I in mathematical explanations of phenomena Examples Theories of special relativity general relativity the kinetic theory of gasses Quantum mechanics etc introduction The so calledl i i 39 invollves reduction andl deduction isolation of cause andl effect by experiment logical inference introduction Description of the problem previous literature on tlhe topic outlline of this paper 2 Data colllection techniques or mathematical assun39liptions equations 3 Results 4 Analysis of resollts what tlhey mean 5 Conclusions and future dlirections Bibliograph39wl References Introduction I On a rock ruling the Sun PHYS 1750 Page 1 Introduction Hm I I On a lock urtlmg the Sun Introduction l u v I On a rock nrclm the Sim 39 2 The Sun IS one of 200 billion stats cubith m QMlllgyWay Introduction no I I On a rock mdmg the Sun 2 The Sun Is one of 200 bullion stats otbitmg In the Milky Way 3 The Milky Way Is one of l07ons of Jalast II the owl mup 39 H u I PHYS 1750 Page 2 Introduction introduction Questions for Review What is physics What are models in the context of physics Laws Theories What is reduction What is deduction What is the radius of the Earth The sun What is the radius of the Earth39s orbit How close is the nearest star to the sun What is the Milky Way How many stars does it contain What is its diameter What is the Local Group What is the Virgo Superclulster What is the Cosmologicall Principle How old is the Universe How is the Universe changing with time What are the consequences of this change PHYS 1750 Page 3 Lecture 2 Tuesday August 25 2015 1247 PM PHYS I750 The Atomic Scale Five million atoms in a virus protective coat PHYS I750 The Atomic Scale Text 22 amp 48 WV on gt 3 quack ks Matenals a we QW 3 0 IS made of be onIcmatter awn a WnS quotv3gt charge The material within queafks are never orxe properties 2l3 923 213 1l3 30 0 6quot we a H39mckcd 0 3 nucleus Nu no on Sucoi 926 s far as we 7 Protons and neutrons know ar point partch both have mass abO39 radius 085 x10 15 m The electron cloud of an atom has mass 17 x 1027 kg a radius of about 1 x10391 m SM CTXZV6IH l raxr H j R ElecA roma heHsm 3 he weak orce Ll Hm Wor s 0VC PHYS I750 The Atomic Scale PHYS I750 The Atomic Scale Forces m6 c giavltons photons W and 2 an 9 was a L n 0 011m 5 ravu1 ullmll Humu w A A V PHYS 1750 Page 4 gj avrtons photons W and 2 an 9 uorisa Straw1 6 n mvul pher w o e e n Electromagnetic Weak n 1 Bur M mm 6 Ue p it H between quarks botwmn nucloom Strong Interaction li39IiIYS 1750 The Atomic Scale Review Questions What are baryons What are they made oi L What are the most eliernentary particles that make up our worrid How many quarks and what kinds make up a proton A neutron What is cotorquot as applied to quarks Baryons are closely packedi in an atomic nucieus which means the volume of a nucieus is about A times the volume of a singie proton where A is the number of baryons What is the radius of a uranium nucleus having 238 baryons The mass of the sun is 2 x1030 kg How many baryons does it contain V j lf39 i395 ii39 i g 39 I i Frames We live in a world 0 We have choice to move in s ace but not in time e must provid e must provide We do not know why there are such dimensions PHYS 1750 Page 5 drillquot I What are the tour physioall forces in nature 5 What material properties do these forces interact with What structures is each force responsible for buiiding How are these forces exchanged from one particle to another la 7 0i lD laoSOHS c bd W V 011 va X Proms 91 heuv mro ms a LAP 4 dOw quarks S1 639 3amp 3 CR LAP 0iOWh3 3b 5 Li cm a like qWH xl Lowe applies guralk8 Rotorum 639 on 4 have coolquot G 7 V quotquot73 r v3 v 23 v5 rs Verihl a me10 7k3 WWOD growih CCCWOVAO0J weak SkiOHS Mass Cha COIOK low HU adorns W nude 5 PMS tl FEED Epaeeatiime Frames The frerne ice rimming with the eheewen in which inteaeurernente are made if the frame is eleeeel nine eennet determine it the frame ttsxelt the moving Eefere 19M lEeeneene nneaeurest the Same Space and time intervals between events After 19135 Twe etbsereers meaning relative ten eeeh ether measure different space and time intervals between the same events PHYS l 750 Spacetime Righthanded X thumb Y fingers Z palm nd may be chosen to be parallel to important directions In the problem at hand Often the physics in one direction is independent of the physics in a direction at right angles to that direction PHYS I750 Spacetime Coordinate systems Example ight of baseball 39tlp Gravtty acts In Zdn39ection does not I affect motion in Xdirection Revrew Questions I What is a laboratory frame In a Cartesian coordinate system if Y is up and X is east which way is 2 What coordinate directions would you choose to describe the motion of a box sliding down a ramp PHYS 1750 Page 6 Lecture 3 Wednesday August 26 2015 1249 PM Albrecht Diirer 1525 Draughtsmon Drawing a Recumbent Woman In physical science a rst essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to nd principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it but when you cannot measure it when you cannot express it in numbers your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind it may be the beginning of knowledge but you have scame in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science whatever the matter may be Baron William Thomson Kelvin 3 May 1883 PHYS 175039 Methodology Text 12 13 14 MemDV Zf Systeme International Sll one leg one step one heartbeat 3 literlquairtl of water 1 gram 2 paperclips ieurrent through 100W light bulb lose to the miiniimum perceptual difference we candle annel 12 grams of carbon12 or allow gtl II39wci added numbers must have the same unlts Units may be divided or multiplied leg speed is ms PHYS 1750 Methodology ale Memorize Keep in mind For a given problem all Slmtlal units must have the same prefix e 3 all lengths in km etc IPlIYS39 1750i lMEtlthdOlOgV m l 4 0 M H PHYS 1750 Page 7 PHYS 1750 Methodology v Wt mmswerncms N l l l I 39iimple measurements against a standard 3 Usually distributed with a Gaussian pro le having a standard deviation unknown errors within the measuring device or methodl of measurement llndividual measurements may have lhigh or low accuracy indicated by the number of significant figures or digits in the reported numlber eg 51l3926 i Ut has four signiticant gures 4 The answer to a callculation shouldl never have more signi cant figures than 3K the least accurate number in the calculation Exam ple 113 X 1013 113 trillion and subtraction both numbers must have the same power mulltiply mantissas and add exponents divide mantissas and subtract exponents mama sea H3 lPlHYS 1750 llvletzhodollogy Mathematics in this course Simple allgebra andl trigonometry Sorne powers and logarithms The ability to manipulate tormulae with symbolic variables Circumference 2mquot and area quotrtr2 oi circle 6 Memoy lZC Surtace area 4m and volume 4f393ttr339 of a sphere w Trigonometry of simple right trianglles 45 30 h 3 sin h I h 3 5 The values of TI and e to 3 or 4 significant gures 0 O a J 30 cos as It is always usefull to make estimations of what the answer to a 39 m E problem should be both before doing the actual callculla tlon and sw 30 a afterwards as a check 1 Do the arithmetic with only one si39 lnificant digit in your head I E 2 Check tlhe units witlh Make sure that the H combination of units in the calcullation is tlhe same as that of the desired answer l A lo l Cquot d 6 PHYS 1750 Methodology Understand the circumstances of the problem ie get the quotbig pictu re Sketch a diagram to help identify what is important Identity the known variables and constants and the unknown variablles Identi lhr as many independent equations as there are unknowns that relate all the variables Solve the equations symbolicallly without values inserted Check the units with dimensionall analysis Substitute in the lknown values and calculate the unknowns Check with rst digit estimation is the answer of the riglht order of magnitude 4359 th POT PHYS 1750 Page 8 PHYS 3917501Metlhrodology I Review Questions Be able to identify the seven fundamental SI units of measurement Be able to provide a common examplle of 1 unit at each at the St units What are the two types of error in any measurement What causes random errors Systematic errors How many signi cant figures shioutd the result at a given calculation have Usain Bolt ran the t 00 meter race in 963 s iin the 201l2 Olympic Games What was his average speed to the oomrect numtner at signi cant tilgures The US debt is now 184 x1012 dolllars The US poputation is 314 x1l 03 How much do each of us ewe Solve the equation L 4n39rst4for the temperature T What is the surtace area ot39 a sphere iin terms of its radius r Tlhe lluminosity of the sun is 38 x1025 watts the Earth is 15 it1011 rn away How many watts strike each m2 at the Earth at noon near the equator Hint the luminosity of the sun is unifonnly distributed over any sphere centered en the sun Text problems 11 1 19 115 117 121 127 129 132 luminosi lfquot 39 gt4 13ng l iTi 9 a m 391 z m O 1 5 g R 15 x d w E l 1 l1 ll Flu Lewm ldr PW may you sec mm F L w 15003 9s L rTV 9 m mg PHYS 1750 Page 9 Lecture 4 Thursday August 27 2015 953 AM PHYS l 750 Kinematics MDuchamp 1912 Nude Descending 0 Staircase No 2 PHYS 1750 Kinematics 39 moi o n s oich inin n Text 21 displacement from the coordinate origin xo x1 Lon M HMO He x0 is the coordinate origin often 0 and x1 is the present position The displacement along the x direction is om Specifying displacement In the example above positive is toward the right Negative A would be toward the left The units are meters m WWW ntquot quotquot 39lrquot i WIial vd quotI39 lquot 39 the l 24quot H 39 l 39 39 1quot 1 gt5 NUquot PHYS l YSU Kinematics Text 22 Spatial location displacement from the coordinate origin 3 X0 11 Here x0 is the coordinate origin often 0 and x1 is the present position The displacement along the x direction is M 2 Klquot x0 Quantities that include direction in their definitions are callled Vector quantity svm olls are usualiy does MOUH39CV Quantities that do not auea dire N g 2 A KiH QuestL MCL ti eV N 923 PHYS 1750 Kinematics d m Text 23 J 7quot A 2 PHYS 1750 Page 10 m a t l il lih I 1 EU mnematlcs text 23 gtH v No K1 in ii Considier a time interval At ti t0 and a distance travelied in that intervai Ax JrIn In then the average velocity iswith SI units small time intervail 94 such that the velocity does not have time to change signitica ntl39v over the interval the velocity Plil r39S WED Kinematics Text 24 The average acceileration over a time intervai At itl to with The is the average acceileration in the limit of a very smaill time interval At such that the acceleratiorni does not have time to change significantly over the interval The instantaneous acceleration Pl il i S 1 7 50 Kinematics Relational formulae undler constant acceieration Text 25 in any one coordlinate direction tie a1iiime t after to is 39Iihe over the time interval At t tn is So the at time t becomes or it ave It the beginning of the motion Wderived by substitution is 4quotK 39 7 acmhq 141 time 6 unavailable PHYS WED Kinematics Exercises with the acceleration of gravity Text 2 The near the surface of the earth is for all objects PHYS 1750 Page 11 J dJc ms Ve im is apicalle or Scaiar quan rl hi The is the average velocity in the limit of a venta rePaC A N a lowermsz 0 keno Ms Podh OlFZz t ltvgt i5 VC IZ lo 39 0 gtltLD x0 wet 0506k 30ch 39x03 7 Va 39 v3quot exercises wnn the acceleration or giraer text 2r quot The near the surface of the earth is for all objects Let us assume that t 0 at the beginning of the motion 2 VO vzitl v1 93 t V V o at s z t 20 iamt 015 98 t2 O jo t t v 3 2 l l r 0 Say we are given an initial speed upward um at l LSohre wit 0 1 1390 93 t to get time at top of trajectory 8 2Solve other equation for distances heights I A2 At PHYS l 50 Kinematics l lo at Review questions I a What is dlisrplacernent Velocity Acceleration What are their units X quot X0 Vot 9 at Understand and be able to use the reiarional formulae assuming constant acceleration in a straight line path ago lt gt What is the acceleration of gravity at quotthe surface of the Earth a Vi Vo How long does it take an object to fall it m on Earth At Solve 10 05 gr for r 962quot AK gx 9 Va lt0 399 Text problems 25 2 212 El n 2l 212i 2218 240 2 39lllEl 246 Ln o use 39a 01lt3Jca Lilo PHYS 1750 Page 12

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