Week 1 Book Notes (Chapters 23.1, 29, 32.4)
Week 1 Book Notes (Chapters 23.1, 29, 32.4) BSC2011
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CHAPTER 23 231 Distinct Body Plans Evolved Among the Animals General characteristics of an animal 0 multicellular o heterotrophy food from outside sources 0 internal digestion o motility at some stage of life All animals are monophyletic share common ancestor Animals share morphological synapomorphies shared derived traits primarily at the cellular level 0 collagen proteoglycans Hox developmental genes I Hox genes specify body pattern and axis formation 9 developmental similarities Genomes are the source of all inherited trait information I Basic Developmental Patterns and Body Plans Differentiate Major Animal Groups Diploblast two cell layers ectoderm outer skin and endoderm inner skin Triploblast three cell layers ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm Blastopore a singlecell layer hollow ball that forms during early development Gastration the point where the blastopore develops a cuplike indention at its bottom that develops into either the anus or the mouth The tube forms upward Protostones mouth first where the blastopore forms the mouth rst during development Deuterostones mouth second where the blastopore forms the anus rst during development Protostones and deuterostones are bilaterians contain bilateral symmetry 0 Accouns for a majority of animal species Body plan general structure of an animal the arrangement of its organ systems and the integrated function of its parts I Most Animals are Symmetrical Symmetry when two nearequal halves of an animal can be produced when dividing on an axis Radial symmetry when dividing on any axis produces two nearequal halves Bilateral symmetry when the left and right sides of an animal are mirror images and the axis of symmetry is on the anteriorposterior midline Cephalization the concentration of sensory organs and nervous tissue at the anterior end of the animal I The Structure of the Body Cavity In uences Movement Triploblasts can be further divided by their body cavity s presence and structure Body cavity uidfilled structure Acoelomate has no uidfilled cavity instead has cells called mesenchyme between the gut and the muscular body wall Pseudocoelomate body cavity is called a pseudocoel which is a uidfilled space in which many of the internal organs are suspended The pseudocoel is surrounded by muscles Coelomate the coelom has muscles that surround both the internal organs and also the outer wall Hydrostatic skeletons a skeleton that allows iud to shift usually is the body cavity Coelomate animals have more control than pseudocoelomate animals 0 Animals with longitudinal muscles and also circular muscles have even greater control Most large terrestrial animals have hard skeletons that provide protection and facilitate movement I Segmentation Improves Control of Movement 0 Segmentation the division of the body into segments 0 Seen in most animals facilitates the specialization of body regions allows precise movements 0 Differs vastly between species 0 Annelids segments repeated over and over 0 Arthropods segments are very different 0 Humans mixed vertebrae in back are same but muscles vary I Appendages Have Many Uses 0 Appendages outside the body greatly increase motility o Arthropods have jointed limbs o Echinoderms have tube feet 0 Appendages can be used for sensingeating o Antennae for sensing o Claws and arthropod mouthparts for eating I Nervous Systems Coordinate Movement and Allow Sensory Processing 0 Bilaterians typically have a wellformed CNS 0 Other animals such as jellyfish have nerve nets or no noticeable CNS 0 Bilaterian CNS control motor functions digestive processes sensory information CHAPTER 29 FUNDAMENTALS OF ANIMAL FUNCTION 291 Animals Eat to Obtain Energy and Chemical Building Blocks 0 Animals are heterotrophs 9 autotrophs make their own food 0 Heterotroph an organism that requires preformed molecules as food 0 Autotroph organism that can obtain energy from inorganic sources and can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic precursors I Animals Need Chemical Building Blocks to Grow and to Replace Chemical Constituents Throughout Life 0 Building blocks that an animal consumes allows it to growbuild new cells 0 Even as adults animals need proper nutrients to replenish cells that are lostbroken downregrown I Animals Need Inputs of ChemicalBond Energy to Maintain Their Organized State Throughout Life 0 An animal is defined by the organization of its body 0 Present at macro and microcellular levels Second Law of Thermodynamics any system left to itself will begin to become disorganized Animals need to consume energy to combat the second law of thermodynamics Energy the capacity to create or maintain organization To do work with energy it must be in the form of chemical energy heat cannot do work Chemical energy is converted to heat and thus unusable which is why animals must seek new energy 292 An Animal s Energy Need Depends on Physical Activity and Body Size I We Quantify an Animal s Metabolic Rate by Measuring Heat Production or 02 Consumption 0 When energy is consumed it is converted to heat Since chemical energy can do work and heat cannot when energy is converted to heat it is consumed 0 Metabolic rate rate of energy consumption ie how fast an animal consumes chemical energy and converts it to heat 0 Measuring metabolic rate is done by measure 02 used in the following equation 0 Organic compound 02 9 C02 H20 heaet I The reaction is exothermic and provides a reliable way to measure metabolism I Physical Activity Increases an Animal s Metabolic Rate 0 Speed and 02 consumption have a positive linear relationship in humans who run 0 Birds show a curve in ight speed and 02 with the most efficient being at medium speed 0 Fish show and exponential function because water resistance is exponential with speed I Among Related Animals Metabolic Rate Usually Varies in a Regular Way With Body Size 0 Basal Metabolic Rate BMR the rate at which an animal consumes energy while it is resting and has not eaten in the recent past 0 Scaling relationships relationships where animal characteristics are examined as function of body size 0 BMR and body size have a negative linear relationship 0 The implications of BMR scale are important in many ecosystems 9 a 2000g rabbit will eat 13 as much as 100 20g mice so this food must be available 294 Animals Exhibit Division of Labor but Each Cell Must Make Its Own ATP 0 Most adult mammals are 60 water stored in various compartments 0 Intracellular uid uid inside the cells Contains most of an animal s water 39 intracellular compartment 0 Extracellular uid uid outside the cells Contrains the blood plasma and interstitial uid interstitial uid makes up very litter of the water percentage 39 extracellular compartment I Fluid Compartments are Separated by Physiologically Active Epithelia and Cell Membranes o EPITHELIA o Epithelium a sheet of epithelial cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity 39 Simple epithelium a single layer of cells that rest on a nonliving membrane I Epithelium can move ions secrete hormones mucus milk sweat 39 Our body blood vessels intestines kidney tubules sweat glands 0 CELL MEMBRANES 0 Cell membranes are less common separate intra and extracellular uid and help pass ions I Animals Exhibit a High Degree of Division of Labor 0 Multicellular organisms develop specialized cells that have special tasks to contribute to survival 0 Cell lt tissue lt organ lt multiorgan system muscle cell 9 smooth tissue 9 heart 9 CV system 0 Tissue assemblage or cells of a similar type 0 Organ two or more types of tissue with a defined structural relationship to each other 0 Multiorgan system multiple organs working together I Division of Labor Requires a Rapid Transport System 0 Complexity of circulation system are correlated with BMR the most pressing transport is 02 but waste and other nutrients are also important I Each Cell Must Make Its Own ATP 0 ATP is instant but cells must make their own from nutrients that are transported as FFAs or glucose I Animal Cells Have Aerobic and Anaerobic Processes for Making ATP 0 Aerobic oxygenrequiring most animal cells produce ATP at a rate at which 02 is used roughly 0 Takes place in mitochondria of cell I e39 transport and oxidative phosphorylation o Anaerobic without oxygen 0 This is not universally present in cells 9 brain can only metabolize ATP aerobically o Anaerobic glycolysis converts sugar to ATP without use of mitochondria but produces lactic acid so this product is unsustainable 296 Animal Function Requires Control Mechanisms o The nervous and endocrine systems are important for body interaction I Homeothermy Exemplifies NegativeFeedback Control 0 Control system a system that is comprised of the following four parts 0 Control variable characteristic that is being controlled 0 Sensors detect the controlled variable 0 Effectors tissues or organs that can control the level of the control variable 0 Control mechanism controls which effectors to activate and how intensely to activate them 0 Homeothermy is a control system and has negative feedback 0 Feedback the system received information on how its activation of effectors changed the control variable 39 Negative feedback the system works to return the control variable to a set points I Positive feedback the system works to amplify the control variable I Positive Feedback Occurs in Some Cases 0 Positive feedback occurs when deviations from the control variable are amplified 0 Ex uterine contractions of birth I Biological Clocks Make Important Contributions to Control 0 Biological clocks internal mechanisms for keeping track of time 0 When an animal is isolated its biological clock will freerun and this will be a little faster or slower depending on the animal o In nature entrainment the reset of clock to be synchronous with 24horu Earth days keeps biological clocks in time Circadian clocks freerunning biological clocks that are about 24 hours Circannual clocks freerunning biological clocks that are about 1 year Circatidal clocks freerunning biological clocks that follow tides Master clock overall biological clock that keeps the other cells in time Located in the suprachiastmatic nucleus SCN 293 Metabolic Rates Are Affected by Homeostasis and by Regulation and Conformiy 0 Tissue uids interstitial uids the liquid that bathes cells inside an animal s body 0 Also called the internal environment 0 External environment the outside world I Animals Are Classed As Regulators And Conformers o Regulatorsregulation animals that control their internal environment maintain homeostasis 0 Conformersconformity animals where the internal environment matches the external environment I Regulation Is More Expensive Than Conformity 0 Benefits of regulation cells enjoy constancy o Drawbacks it is metabolically expensive I Homeostasis is a Key Organizing Concept 0 Blood Plasma the blood solution in which the red blood cells and other blood cells are suspended o Homeostasis the stability of the internal environment and the mechanisms that maintain that stability I Animals are Classified as Homeotherms or Poikilotherms Based o Thermoregulation maintaining a stable body temperature 0 Animals that do this are homeotherms I Includes most mammals o Maintains a temperature relative to the TNZ or thermonuclear zone This is the range where an animal s metabolic rate is relatively constant 0 When an animal s temperature rises above or below the TNZ the animal releases heat and its metabolic rate increases this was part of the hypothalamus tutorial in LP 0 Poikilothermsectotherms animals whose body temperatures match the temperature outside I Homeothermy is Far More Costly than Poikilothermy o The average metabolic rate of homeotherms is 15 30 times that of poikilotherms I Homeotherms Have Evolved Thermoregulatory Mechanisms 0 Mammals birds and insects are the major groups of homeotherms 0 Shivering a mechanism that the hypothalamus activates when the body falls below TNZ and muscles shake to create more ATP and more heat o Nonshivering thermogenesis takes place in the BAT brown adipose tissue and does not require shivering Here the energy is created by oxidative phosphorylation I Hibernation Allows Mammals to Reap the Benefits of Both Regulation and Conformity o Hibernation a period where an animal transitions into poikilothermy to conserve energy and avoid predation 324 Many Key Processes Occur in the Vascular System 0 Vascular system all of the blood vessels in the body 0 Cardiovascular system all of the blood vessels plus the heart 0 Elasticity of arteries is important for two reason 0 They relieve pressure from the heart 0 They squeeze the blood and help maintain blood pressure I Pressure and Linear Velocity Vary Greatly as Blood Flows Through the Vascular System 0 Blood pressure represents potential energy 0 Falls as the blood ows when it reaches veins the pressure is almost zero I This is why veins have valves 0 Linear velocity of blood also decreases with traveling I Animals Have Evolved Arrangements of Blood Vessels That Help Them Conserve Heat 0 Countercurrent exchange a veinartery placement that is sidebyside thus allowing the arterial heat to escape to the veins as the blood is traveling back to the heart and conserves heat 0 Tuna use countercurrent exchange as well Red swimming muscles produce a lot of heat This is carried outward by veins to longitudinal arteries are very close to arteries that carry blood into the red muscles Therefore heat is maintained I Blood Flow Leaves Behind Fluid That the Lymph System Picks Up 0 Water is drawn into capillaries and also driven out by the high blood pressure 0 24 liters of water is lost to this osmotic pressure 0 The lymphatic system collect this excess uid and connect to veins at the back of the neck to return this lymph