ANE 15 Week 7 Notes
ANE 15 Week 7 Notes Ancient Near East 15
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabel Yin on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ancient Near East 15 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Kathlyn Cooney in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Women and Power in the Ancient World in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
AncientNearEast15 WinterQuarter INSTRUCTOR:KaraCooney Women and Power in Ancient Persia Map ● Persian Empire 4th century BCE, empire makes things a little different , modern day Iran, west of India, mountain ranges, steppes and plains and rivers ● Economy will be mixed between rainfed agriculture and herding ● Economy of the core in Ancient Persia is different from economy in the Ancient Persia ● Empire taken everything in hegemony, how will you unite all different culture and languages ● Religion is one of the things that the Empire wants to win cooperation and hearts of people, because there’re so many push backs ● Reason to build empire is to pull wealth (mineral wealth, resource wealth) through agriculture and labor to supply its core ● Extraction of labor and resources = definition of empire (expand and invade new places with big rush of wealth) ● Gain with diminishing returns, military is too expensive to continue invasions, therefore empire seems to break down so often ● Each time the empire falls apart, the system is more able to handle complicated = Grow (assyrian persia alexander the great roman empire) ● Roman empire never reconstituted ● Ability to unify politically: not able to create big urban centers, politically driven by the king, urbanism is low in our system ● Unification of the Persian Homeland alone: not too easy, no river, permeable places you can go in and out of the empire ● Lock down control of the empire, it enabled her to unify ● Empire is inherently decentralized: put representatives in the cities they’ve conquered to put down rebellions and pull taxes, making sure they’re able to extract resources ● But at the same time, local rulers are very inclined to act in their own interest since the transportation of messages is not very good ● Allow him to take some of his taxes to get rich, raising his own personal army is fraught in all kinds of potential danger, in order to make his agenda your agenda ● As you are pulling in resources to the core, make sure ● Inherently a balance between local systems and the agenda of local empires 1 ● Empire doesn’t care about local cultures [who may think that a woman cannot rule], look past what a local culture cannot Persian Government System ● Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus the Great, 6th century BCE, taken over by Alexander the Great 330 BCE (couple hundred years) ● Hereditary monarchy supported by elites, professional bureaucracy, land army, and navy ● Satrapy system to administer empire = regional autonomy in exchange for tax and trade. Vassal king or governor (think in a decentralized way in order to push into the empire) assign persian native or use fierce competition to take over the area ● Royal inspectors “Eyes and Ears of King” kept watch on provinces. Postal system. Aramaic = lingua franca ● 10,000 immortals = royal bodyguards and personal army of king ● Imperial rule = constant balance of authoritarianism with crushing of rebellions. Constant threat of coup ● No empire needs to use native language, religion to win other people over ● Driving force for empire = economic power ● Husband/father/brother or her son Women in Persia ● Like any hereditary monarchy, women gained power through father, husband, son ● could sometimes act as as queen regent for a young son. could act as queen at the end of a dynasty. no examples of regents in Persia, however ● Women had dynastic power (soft power) and economic power ● Zoroastrianism supported women’s education, rights, and to some extent, rule ● Problem with our sources (Greek historians with agenda; few Persian sources, anti Persian) Mandana ● Daughter of Median ruler Astyages. Acc. to Herodotus, Astyages dreamed Mandana urinated so much that it flooded the world or that a vine grew from her and covered everything = offspring would take over the world ● Power is from her womb ● Married Cambyses I. Mother of Cyrus the Great who started the Persian Empire Atossa ● Cyrus the great’s daughter ● Married to her fullbrother Cambyses (next of kin marriage in Zoroastrian law allows concentration of wealth in one family and such a marriage produces a son with glory of rulers hip on both sides) to prevent competitive systems ● When Cambyses died, another son of Cyrus the great, Bardiya became king and she married him 2 ● Coup = Darius killed Bardiya, and took Atossa as his highest placed wife. Xerxes is her son with Darius ● she is the lynch pin to power! But she wields no political power on her own. Dynastic power of Persian woman ● She controlled wealth property (Elamite tablets) and it could not be taken from her. Economic power ● (Bardiya’s daughter Parmis inherited a huge amount of property. She continued to control property even after death of Bardiya. Important position at Darius’ court, only documented in his administrative sources, never in Greek sources) ● claim right of light a coups of blood shed ● Very rich, access to great economic power, wields that power over her husband in succession ● Great control of property Amestris of Persia ● Wife of Xerxes. 5th century BCE ● After death of husband, influential during reign of son Artaxerxes I. ● Her other son Achaemenes killed by Egyptian rebels. Satrap Megabyzus cut a deal to end rebellion, and she was enraged. Finally got to crucify the Egyptian leader Inarus and several others five years later ● The influence was institutional, not personal, based on belonging to family of Achaemenids. Sui generis independently own her own administration and economic system. she was a powerful women ● working her soft power to get politically ● institutional power of her money and her son = work through patriarchal system ● notice it’s a family power can often be independent of the King ● the revenge she enacted was enacted through her own personal economic forces but independent of her sources Artemesia of Caria ● Vassal queen to Persian empire. Queen of the satrapy of Caria. Inherited from her father Lygdamis 5th century BCE. Probably Phrygian (Anatolia). Persians essentially allowed her power, power that locals wouldn’t have allowed. Her sympathy to the Achaemenid house ensured her rule locally ● Female naval commander who participated in battle of Salamis acc. to Herodotus. Contributed five ships ● Encourage Xerxes to attack Greeks by land and sea. erxes refused and attacked at Salamis where he was defeated ● After defeat, counseled him to retreat to Anatolia. Cared for Xerxes’ sons at Ephesus ● wield power as a female commander of power ● naval commander working the system, former title as queen she acted in her command ● In this case, Persian empire doesn’t care if she’s a woman, if she can expand the empire and extract sources 3 Roxana ● Persian (or Bactrian) wife of Alexander the Great ● Accompanied him on campaign to India ● Mother of alexander IV ● Had Alexander’s other wives murdered ● Protected by Alexander’s mother Olympias until her assassination by Cassander. Roxana and her son killed by Cassander ● she ends up being murdered in turn 4