Week 1 Notes
Popular in History in the Western World
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Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
HIST 150 0825 What is History History consists of two levels of dialogue I The first is as follows a The rst level is as follows In words individual humans and their decisions are effected by their natural social and cultural environments and vise versa Their natural environment and social and cultural environments are also effected by each other b The ancient Greeks39 land their natural environment was rocky and fairly dry They made the decision to grow barley olives and grapes These things they then traded and sold olive oil and wine to other countries which led to a culture of trade c Culture is expressed in many different ways but charity sharing food and other resources in the community is expressed in many cultures II The second level is an addition to the rst a In words historians ask questions about a speci c time period then look to primary sources to nd answers 1 Primary sources are letters writings paintings pictures artifacts etc from the time period that is being asked about b An example of this is found if we were to ask about the French Revolution The book A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens would not be an example of a primary source because it is a work of ction even though it was written during at time period If we were to ask about the English opinion about the Revolution then we could consult the book because even though it is a work of ction it shared the opinions of the English about the Revolution c Corroboration is looking for evidence hat supports other evidence 1 Evidence of when humans began walking on two feet can be found in the skeleton Lucy People then corroborated and excavated footprints of people walking upright that were dated to around the same time HIST 150 0827 Evolution by Natural Selection 1 Every living thing shares the four nucleobases adenine thymine guanine and cytosine which are connected in a double heliX a spiral ladder by a phosphate deoxyribose backbone a There is always variation within a species no members of the same species are exactly the same New traits mutations within a species were called sports by Charles Darwin 1 Darwin was an agnostic who wrote On the Origin of Species 2 Alfred Russell Wallace had the same types of ideas as Darwin but believed in God 11 About 7 6 MYA million years ago humans and apes had a common ancestor called the hominids the human branchoff was called the hominins a 7 6 MYA sahelanthropus tchadensis came from the hominins b 5852 MYA ardipithecus kadabba c 44 MYA ardipithecus ramidus was the earliest found bipedal forest dweller walking upright d 42 MYA australopithecines Lucy Laetoli footprints were about 35 5 feet tall and walking upright in Africa 1 3 2 MYA kenanthropus platyops was an upright walking breed whose bones were found next to tools that they had crafted out of stones in Kenya e 25 l5 MYA homo habilis were found with the Olduwan tools sharpening hammers to make cutting tools in Africa f 18 MYA3O TYA homo erectus controlled fire hunted acheulian hand aX had sutures soft spots on babies skulls to make childbirth easier for mother and spread throughout Africa Asia and Europe 1 Neanderthals in Europe and Asia could not distance kill and did not draw but could mate successfully with home erectus g 150 TYA4O TYA modern homo sapiens painted cave art had utes and killed with bows and arrows Because the mitochondria the part of a cell that stores energy comes from the mother the mitochondrion was traced back to this time 111 Modern homo sapiens were able to solve problems of not having enough food by beginning agricultural communities a Some cities were formed before agriculture was a strong practice Many of them were near bodies of water so that the people could fish and still hunt and scavenge b At the end of the last ice age nomadic groups began to settle around 13 TYA c Some of the first things that people grew was grasswheat It was not very nutritious but it could be tolerated and was necessary to survive before other more sustaining plants were discovered d In Egypt the life eXpectancy was only about 25 years for the average citizen form their lack of nutrition