PSYC 318: Week 1
PSYC 318: Week 1 Psyc 318
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takyra Thompson on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 318 at Old Dominion University taught by Barbara Winstead in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Week 1 Introduction and Chapter 1 Science and Psychology 339 Questions to Consider 0 What is a good desert to make for a book club 0 What is a good car to buy 0 What is a good religion to practice 0 What ids a good treatment for depression 339 These questions make one consider what is psychologically and scientifically known from one person to another For example what a person knows from experience knowledge and observation Can one person know more from what they experience or from observations of another This chapter talks about the differences in knowing On the other hand How Do We Know what we know 3 There are different ways of knowing the knowledge a person stores in one s mind 0 Tenacity is knowing by force of habit Prior Beliefs and Common Sense 39 This is the knowledge that is automatically stored in the mind 39 Tenacity is the information that is taught and learned through the years 39 Knowledge that is psychologically stored from interest everyday life and experiences I This is our everyday explanations and can re ect opinions and biases 39 Confirmation Bias is the tendency to seek or remember information that support your belief and avoid disconfirming information I Not really tested accurate I Prior Beliefs are resistant to change 0 Authority is knowledge gained from others 39 This is the knowledge that a person learns from other people 0 For example parents peers professors 39 This is useful in earlier stages of science but does not always provide valid answers 39 Authority can be used to make new ideas after being tested 0 Reason is replying on logic and rationality 39 Reason is relying on principles This is also relying on facts to understand what is being known 39 Cannot be used to settle statements of fact 39 Reason can be used to test hypotheses O Empiricism is knowledge based on observation and experience 39 Also known as what you see is what you do and know 0 For example what your parents do you learn to do and know 39 Empiricism is knowing from experiencing day to day life 0 Science is relying on systematic empiricism 39 Science Systematic Empiricism is a process of systematically gathering and evaluation empirical evidencereliable representative and objective data to answer questions and test ideas 0 Requires evidence and collected objectively and purposefully 339 A scientist is a person who studies science 0 They work in many different places to adopt scientific methods to acquire information in a wider range of activities 0 Scientist use science to define problems seek relevant information and test hypotheses 339 Goals of Science 0 Description identifying cataloging classifying and quantifying a natural phenomenon o Explanation developing formal explanations of the cause of phenomena and the relationships among phenomena 0 Predictions developing theories that can forecast the likely outcomes to situations or events 0 Control developing theories that can be used to derive manipulations treatments and interventions that can change outcomes or nature to behave differently 339 Causal Inferences o Causal inferences are possible when three conditions have been met 39 Covariation As X changes Y changes I Temporal order Change in X occurs before change in Y I Absence of plausible alternative explanations Other factors that could have driven the change in Y can be ruled out 339 The Scientific Method 0 Assumes truth is discoverablerealism Is grounded in systematic empiricism observation Addresses testable questions falsifiable Strives for accuracy and objectivity generalizable and replicable Requires clear definitions and operations must be able to quantify something to study it Involves public reporting peerreview amp replicable methods 0 Scientific Claims are tentative theories are tested ever more stringently reassess theories based on new evidence 0000 O o Selfcorrecting reliable results are replicated useful theories are generalized to new domains and situations incorrect assumptions or theories are discarded 339 Science and Pseudoscience Science Pseudoscience Findings published in peer reviewed publications using standards for honesty and accuracy aimed at scientists Findings disseminated to general public via sources that are not peer reviewed No prepublication review for precision or accuracy Experiments must be precisely described and be reproducible Reliable results are demanded Studies if any are vaguely defined and cannot be reproduced easily Results cannot be reproduced Scientific failures are carefully scrutinized and studied for reasons for failure Failures are ignored minimized explained away rationalized or hidden Over time and continued research more and more is learned about scientific phenomena No underlying mechanisms are identified and no new research is done No progress is made and nothing concrete is learned Idiosyncratic findings and blunders average out and do not affect the actual phenomenon under study Idiosyncratic findings and blunders provide the only identifiable phenomena Scientists convince others based evidence and research findings making the best case permitted by existing data Old ideas discarded in the light of new evidence Attempts to convince based on belief and faith rather than facts Belief encouraged in spite of facts not because of them Ideas never discarded regardless of the evidence Scientist has no personal stake in a specific outcome of a study Serious con icts of interest Pseudoscientist makes his or her living off of pseudoscientific products or services Empirical Question Examples 0 Can money buy happiness 0 What determines our happiness 0 Is beauty in the eye of the beholder 0 Does spanking children make them more aggressive Importance of Research 0 Research is being exposed everyday I For example scientific polls information on new cures and pitches to buy a product 0 Knowledge about research helps deal with everyday research issues rationally Skepticism is an outlook that entails careful evaluation of evidence rather than blind acceptance of claims
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