Week One Notes: Chapters 1-2
Week One Notes: Chapters 1-2 PBHL 3100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ali on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PBHL 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Sabrina Cherry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 293 views. For similar materials see Intro to Public Health in Public Health at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Introduction to Public Health PBHL 3100 Professor Sabrina Cherry University of Georgia Chapter One 0 Public Health works to assure a society that conditions are met where people can be healthy 0 Public health aims to prevent disease and promote health 0 The name of the CDC Center for Disease Control was changed to the Center for disease control and prevention 0 There are three core functions of public health 1 Assessment Can be compared to a doctor diagnosis aniHness 2 Policy Development Can be compared to a doctors plan of treatment 3 Assurance Can be compared to the actual treatment by a doctor 0 Comparison between medicine and public health 0 Medicine works with individuals while PH works with communities 0 Goal of medicine is to while the goal of PH is to prevent 0 Treatment of a community involves implementing new policies and interventions 0 While 30 years have been added to the average life span of an American over the 20th century only 5 can be attributed to medicine The others are because of public health yet only 3 of the nations budget is designated to PH 0 The scienti c knowledge on which public health is based spans the broad range of professional disciplines listed 0 Epidemiology thought to be the basic science of PH Study of epidemics Focuses on human populations Goals are to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and identify the risk factors for chronic diseases quotShoeleather epidemiologyquot is the science of guring out the causes for a disease illness and injury and putting programs into place in order to minimize expose to those risks 0 Statistics collection of data on the population Numbers are diagnostic tools for the community and can be used to calculate risks and bene ts o Biomedical Sciences both PH and medicine depend on this eld Control of diseases requires the understanding of pathogens which cause infectious diseases genetics and chronic diseases Environmental Health Science health effects regarding environmental factors This could include the spread of disease through water air or food Much of the great improvement in PH in the US can be credited to the fact that most Americans have safe drinking water because of the engineering design and building of new systems Global environment change can be somewhat attributed to human activities and the improvement of the environment and how we treat it falls into this category Food and drug safety is handled by a government agency called the FDA Social and Behavioral Sciences behavior is now the leading factor in causing peoples deaths Major health threats that fall into this category include tobacco poor diet and physical in activity and injuries It is thought that social environment effects people behavior One major social issue in todays society is maternal and child health Health Policy and Management Role of medical care in public health The price of medical care in the US is out of control therefore the many people who do not have health insurance do not receive the proper medical care that they need Quality of medical care CAN be measured and its price is often questioned o The events related to terrorism such as 911 and the anthrax letters have highlighted the need for PH in the US 0 0 PH not only involves natural disasters but also man made disasters and helps protect both survivors and rescuers Terrorism is de ned as an act intended to cause terror as a way to achieve political goals whether they are politics of nationalism ethnicity religion ideology or social class Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of natural or humanmodi ed biological agents such as bacteria viruses or toxins Public health involves both science how we understand threats to health and the interventions necessary and politics how a society decides what interventions should and will be implemented Publics health s approach to health problems in a community can be described in a vestep process 1 De ne the health problem 2 Identify the risk factors associated with the problem 3 Develop and test communitylevel interventions to control or prevent the cause of the problem 4 Implement interventions to improve the health of the population 5 Monitor those interventions to asses their effectiveness There are three levels of prevention establish by public health to deal with certain problems 0 Primary prevention prevents injury and illness from occurring at all by preventing exposure to risk factors Example discouraging teenagers from smoking and efforts for current smokes to quit in order to help prevent cancer 0 Secondary prevention seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to injurycausing event once the event has occurred Example screening programs to detect cancer early while it is still treatable o Tertiary prevention seeks to minimize disability by providing medical care and rehabilitation services Example medical treatment and rehabilitation of caner patients Another approach is to consider an illness or injury as the result of a chain of causation and designing intervention in dealing with it this way 0 Chain of causation involves Agent disease causing virus or bacterium Host a susceptible human being Environment means by which the agent reaches the host 0 Intervention can focus on any of these targets Public Health practitioners have several different roles locating and tracking diseases planning implementing and evaluation programs analysis and creation of policies and testing the environment for toxic agents 0 PH practitioners can also work in many different setting including communities hospitals nonpro t organizations forpro t corporate organizations health departments private rms colleges and universities and government Chapter Two 0 Many issues in public health are very controversial in todays society and provide a lot of question on what the right thing to do is o Mammograms are expensive 300600 provide much stress and worry and for most women prove to be diagnostic Late stage breast cancer treatment in comparison is much more expensive 1M Should breast caner screening be delayed What factors should be considered What steps can be taken to improve current dilemma Look a medication particularly those sometimes cause breast cancer Examine family history for breast cancer frequency Make results more time efficient Typically people would rather pay for prevention than treatment 0 Should states mandate vaccinations even though mothers have concerns about certain side effects particularly autism How do you deal with problems arising with this controversy Educated the parent on all aspects of the vaccination Herd vaccination does not work when multiple people are not vaccinated Find where people get myths about bad side effects of vaccines and disprove them if they are not legitimate 0 Should religious preferences be considered in the treatment of a minor child In particular the decision to give an infant of a Jehovah s Witness family a blood transfusion when they parents do not believe in blood transfusions for religious reasons How should a health professional handle this situation This situation can be handled differently depending on what hospital the child is being treated at Educate the family on the need for the blood transfusion try to understand what aspects of the procedure are speci cally problematic in their religion 0 As a health care provider one must not only educate the community but also be educated by the community 0 Other controversial issues surrounding public health include gun control prostate cancer screenings needle exchange programs early pregnancy abortions especially for rape victims comprehensive sex education translation services in medical care system health insurance 0 Marketjustice emphasizes individual responsibility minimal obligation to the common good and the fundamental freedom to all individuals to be left alone 0 Fair distribution of the burdens of society are prevented by the environment heredity and social structure 0 Social Justice suggests that minimal levels of income basic housing employment education and health care should be seen as fundamental rights 0 There are four main sources of controversy that tend to come up repetitively in any debate over public health actions or activities 0 Economic Impact most public health measure have a negative impact on the on the economy on some on some segment of the population or industry 0 Those who pay may not be the ones who bene t The cost is easier to calculate than the bene ts Cost may be short term while impact is long term Individual Liberty one of the central controversies in public health is the extent to which governments can and should restrict individual freedom for the purpose of improving the community s health One of the primary purposes of government is to quotpromote general welfarequot and while the government cannot cannot guarantee health and safety for each individual its role is to provide maximum health and safety for a community as a whole Tragedy of the commons a situation where individuals acting independently and rationally according to each39s selfinterest behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource Most controversial of PH issues are requirements that restrict people s freedom for the purpose of protecting their own good 0 Examples include requirement to wear a seatbelt when travelling in a car and a helmet when riding a motor cycle o Paternalism the policy or practice on the part of people in positions of authority of restricting the freedom and responsibilities of those subordinate to them in the subordinates39 supposed best interest John Stuart Mill makes a good point in saying that the only purpose for which power can be rightfuly exercised over any member of a civilized community against his Will is to prevent harm to others In the part of his conduct which merely concerns himself his independence is absolute in essence for the common good 0 Moral and Religious Opposition while regulation of the common good is valid trying to legislate morality has often proven to be ineffective selfdefeating and a threat to liberty in part because people differ in what they view a moral Moral controversy arouses most commonly when it confronts sexual and reproductive issues such as AIDS other sexually transmitted diseases teenage pregnancy and low birth weight babies Moralism also enters into discussions of alcohol drugs and assisted suicide 0 Politics verses Science economics and politics are often related and there is always a possibility of tension The Bush administration is criticized for going too far in misinterpreting science to support its policies The Obama administration is criticized for their controversial Healthcare Reform Bill These notes are taken from class slides by professor Sabrina Cherry and supplemented by the book Introduction to Public Health Fourth Edition by Maryjane Schneider
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