August 24-28 Biological Chemistry, Periodic Recurrences, & Electron Shells
August 24-28 Biological Chemistry, Periodic Recurrences, & Electron Shells BIOL1100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann Notetaker on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1100 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Robert Kosinski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Principles in Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Biology 1100 Week 2 August 24 28 This is just a supplement to the notes in the biology booklet Not all definitions will be present Review of the scientific method For a null hypothesis and when other factors are involved a control group is required to debunk these affect your original hypothesis What types of questions is the scientific method good for 0 Must be observable o Controllable o Replicate at will What are they NOT good for 0 Ethical standards 0 Things that are not observable now ex The beginning of life because we were not present at that time and it cannot be replicated exactly 0 Not replicable or observable The Properties of Life What is life 0 Hard to define but you know it when you see it I However sometimes its can be hard to define depending on the circumstances I Example the Nanobacteria 0 Found on Mars 0 Way smaller than normal bacteria 0 Has no DNA 0 Scientists argued back and forth claiming its not alive because it is found in minerals however some thought it was because it was also found in living things 0 Alive or not alive No one really knows o LOOK AT THE LIVING CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MANUAL I Although nonliving things can have some quotlifequot characteristics it doesn t make it living What is the 0 Th early thought was that there were a special set of quotrulesquot that living things worked by and then a separate set of rules for non living things The Levels of Organization 0 Not like a hierarchy but all related to each other Views actions are the result of simple molecules 0 Basically all actions of living and nonliving things are because of molecules doing whatever they are doing 0 How science has been thinking for decades not able to explain actions form atoms and cellular levels 0 This view of thinking is very popular right now I You must study everything together in order to understand Biological Chemistry 114 elements 90 naturally occurring elements Hydrogen is the most abundant Heium is 2quot l because the universe is full of it then oxygen nitrogen and carbon over 20 elements are in the human body KNOW THE ATOMIC MASS AND NUMBER OF OXYGENCARBON NITROGEN HYDROGEN PHOSPERUS AND CALCIUM 0 Atomic the number of protons an element has 0 Most common mass the average mass of an element including their isotopes What truly determines the structure of an atom to be a certain element the valence electrons Electron Shells Electrons cannot simply move wherever they please They each have a certain distance from the nucleus The farther from the nucleus the more unstable they are and more willing to move Subshells also exist 0 SPDF the sublevel names came from the description of the spectrum when the electrons moved energy levels 0 Orbitals are quotgray areas that the electrons will move within the shell 0 The more electrons the more orbitals The Periodic Recurrence of Chemical Properties Mendelev figured out that after arranging the elements in order by atomic mass that every 8th element had similar properties quot39 why do valence electrons matter so much in the properties of an element because the electrons are in a constant state of trying to fill their shell till it reaches the valence octet 8 elements will be reactive until their outer most shell is filled this is why the noble gases aren t reactive at all because their valence octet is already filled The World of a Biologist focuses on the energy levels of the atoms SCENCE s GREATEST TRUTH in nature all things tend to go to their most stable lowenergy state Therefore most things will be found in the most stable state how likely it will take or give up electropostivity an electron two atoms that bond with very different electronegativity atoms bonding with similar electronegativity but not polar because they share electrons equally no partial charges different electronegativity but not quite enough to be ionic example water molecules a subset bond not truly a bond but an attraction to other hydrogen atoms atoms with an unpaired electron are very distinct and highly reactive because will virtually bond to anything Very harmful to human cells Facts About Water 70 of the human body 95 of a jellyfish Essential to life High boiling point regardless of the fact that molecularly water should boil at 91 C but doesn t because of the hydrogen bonds making it harder to break the bonds Cohesion amp Adhesion of Water 0 Has the ability to cling onto surfaces 0 High surface tension
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