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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaydra Notetaker on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Week 2 Anatomical Vocabulary What is Anatomical Position Anatomical Position is Where you are standing erect arms down palms forwards and your feet are slightly apart When referring to someone standing in anatomical position right and left are the indiVidual s right and left not yours Superior Cranial top of the body Inferior Caudal below bottom of the body Ventral Anterior Front of the body Dorsal Posterior Back of the body Medial Towards the midline middle of the body Lateral Away from the midline middle of the body Intermediate Between the more medial and more lateral parts of the body For example The collarbone Proximal Close to the center of the body Distal Farther from the center of the body Superficial external Towards the surface of the body Deep Internal Away from the surface of the body Regions of the Body 1 Axial Head neck and trunk 2 Appendicular Limbs and other extremities Planes of the Body 1 Frontal Plane Anterior and posterior diVision Week 2 2 Transverse Plane Superior and inferior division 3 Median Midsagittal Plane Divides into leftright Divides directly in half Parasagittal Plane Through the middle of the body but not divided directly in half 4 Oblique Plane Increases surface area visible Think about it like from left hip to right shoulder Body Cavities 1 Dorsal Cavity Cranial Cavity Brain Vertebral Cavity Spinal cord 2 Ventral Cavity Thoratic Cavity HeartLungs Abdominal Cavity Digestive Viscera stomachintestinesspleenliver Pelvic Cavity Urinary SystemReproductive System Membranes in Body Cavities l Serous Membrane Serosa Visceral Serosa is the inner membrane Parietal Serosa is the outer membrane Both secrete uid to cushion organs 1 Pericardium Surrounds the heart 2 Pleurae Surrounds the lungs 3 Peritoneum Surrounds the abdominopelvic cavity Abdominopelvic Quadrants 1 Right Upper Quadrant RUQ 2 Left Upper Quadrant RUQ 3 Right Lower Quadrant RLQ Week 2 4 Left Lower Quadrant LLQ What is histology Histology is the study of tissues What is a tissue A tissue is a collection of cells Types of tissue 1 Nervous Tissue Controls Makes up the brain spinal cord and nerves 2 Epithelial Tissue Covers Forms boundaries Skin membranes 3 Muscle Tissue Provides Movement Attached to bones 4 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects Makes up bones and tendons Epithelial Tissue Functions 1 Protection Skinrespiratory 2 Absorption digestive tract 3 Filtration Kidneys 4 Excretion Shipment out glandular function 5 Secretion Synthesis shipment out glandular function 6 Sensory Reception Contains nerves Key Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue l Polarity Basal Lumina Week 2 Place of rest for cell Highway for charges ltration 2 Specialized Contacts Between Cells Tight junctions Anchoring junctions Communicating junctions gap junctions Supported by connective tissue Basement Membrane Basal Lamina Reticular Lamina Resists stretching 3 Avascular but innervated No blood vessels contains nerves 4 Regeneration Mitosis Cells divide quickly out of necessity Think about how it is When you scrape your knee Your cells break and the protective membrane of your body is now compromised Your body has to divide and regenerate cells quickly to minimize risk of infection or invasion from environmental factors Classi cations of Epithelial Tissue 1 Simple 1 layer 2 Strati ed 2 or more layers 3 Squamous scales like a sh 4 Cuboidal cubelike 5 Columnar tallskinny 6 PSCCE puedostrati edciliatedcolumnar epithelial 7 Transitional looks like everything and nothing Example Week 2 Simple Squamous Epithelium Description single layer of attened cells with discshaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm the simplest of the epithelia Function allows material to passdiffuse in sites Where protection is not important Location lungs kidneys lining of heart Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Description single layer or cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei Function secretionabsorption Location kidney tubules ducts and secretory portions of small glandsovary surface Simple Columnar Epithelium Description single layer of tall cells with roundoval nuclei some with cilia may contain mucussecretory unicellular glands Function absorption secretion of mucus enzymes and other substances cilia propel mucus Location digestive tract lining nonciliated gallbladder excretory ducts lining of ovaries Strati ed Squamous Epithelium Description thick membrane composed of several cell layers basal cells are cuboidal columnar and metabolically active surface is at horizontal type full of keratin Function protect underlying tissues Location Vagina nonkeratinized Pseudostrati ed Columnar Epithelium Description single layer of multiple lengthsheights of cells Function Week 2 secretes substances mucus propulsion of mucus by ciliary action Location nonciliated male s spermcarrying ducts Transitional Epithelium Description resembles both stratifiedsquamous and stratifiedcuboidal surface cells dome shaped Function stretches readily permits stored urine to distend urinary organ Location Lines uterus bladder and parts of the urethra Endothelium lining blood vessels heart lymphatic vessels Mesothelium serous membranes What are glands 1 or more cells that synthesizes secretes substances Types 1 Exocrine secretes product onto body surfaceinto body cavities mucus sweat and oil glands 2 Endocrine secretes hormones ductless product directly into blood stream ie Pancreas has alpha cells that react to glucagon in the blood stream and tell the liver to convert glycogen to glucose Unicellular Exocrine Glands goblet cells have microvilli secretory vessels containing mucin Modes of Secretion 1 Merocrine Glands secrete products by exocytosis 2 Holocrine entire secretory cells ruptures releasing secretions and dead cell fragments 3 Apocrine collects product product buds off no cellular fragments Week 2 Connective Tissue Types 1 Proper 2 Cartilage 3 Bone 4 Blood Functions 1 bind support 2 protection 3 insulation 4 storage 5 transport Characteristics 1 Common Origin Mesenchyme partially differentiated to form different connective tissues 2 Variable Vascularity blood vessels 3 Extracellular Matrix Weightbearing can Withstand trauma abrasion Structural Elements Extracellular Matrix Ground Substance Fibers Types 1 Colagen Fibers strongest and biggest most abundant cross lengths with each other to form extra strength 2 Elastic Fibers longer branch to form networks stretch and recoil 3 Reticular Fibers made of collagen less dense branch found in transition region basement membrane