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Final Project

by: Jacob Roberts
Jacob Roberts

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Example of final project.
Instrctn/Mgmt in Inclusive CI's
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Roberts on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TEL 311 at Arizona State University taught by Pirrone in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Instrctn/Mgmt in Inclusive CI's in Journalism and Mass Communications at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
As a child emerges from early childhood to middle childhood, changes in the three different areas of development are observed. Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development occurs is middle childhood. First, physical development in this stage is slow and steady with increased height and weight, without dramatic alterations in basic body structure. Body proportions change less in middle childhood than they do in infancy and early childhood. By middle childhood, a child’s motor skills are typically well developed and continue to improve. Because the body is growing at a slower pace than before, the child has the time to adjust to their body and will learn to use it more efficiently. During this time in children’s lives, physical activity and nutrition is very important. Physical activity helps control weight gain, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and also reduces the risk of diabetes and some cancers. In America, it is recommended that children get sixty minutes of physical activity everyday, but studies have shown that 50% of American children are not getting the recommended amount of exercise. Nutrition is important because the body and mind are still growing, and forming good eating habits and a well-balanced diet can play a role for the rest of their lives. Children need to increase their calorie intake as more physical activity is exerted, but consuming too many calories and not enough physical activity will cause weight gain and can lead to childhood obesity. Parents, caregivers, and educators play a major role in the physical development of a child and can help them be successful with their development. Adults need to watch over the child’s diet and educate them on eating healthy, along with eating the appropriate amount of calories. As an educator, you can help by making sure your students are moving around during the school day as opposed to sitting down at a desk all day. Educators can also send newsletters to students and parents about staying healthy and active. During middle childhood, the cognitive development of a child grows and increases due to the continuous development of the brain. Children of this age are now more able to integrate a problem in order to come up with an appropriate response. Language development continues and by the end of kindergarten, healthy children without major language challenges will understand and use most of the essential words in their language. At school, children are taught new vocabulary in class to learn new words and phrases. Piaget and Vygotsky have different theories about the cognitive development of children. The basic characteristics of Piaget’s stage of concrete operations are the recognition of the logical stability of the physical world, the realization that elements can be changed and still conserve many of their original characteristics, and understanding that these changes can be reversed. Piaget believed that children in middle childhood are able to reason using identity, compensation, reversibility, classification, and serration, but reasoning using hypothetical thinking is still difficult. As for Vygotsky, he believed that development and learning progress when children grapple with problems in their zone of proximal development, and the level of development that the child could achieve with help and support. In this zone, assisted learning, instructional conversations, and building on children’s funds of knowledge move thinking forward. Information Processing theories suggest that human thinking is processing information. In middle childhood, children continue to develop in their abilities to focus their attention selective on relevant information, ignore irrelevant information, and use strategies to plan the best use of attention. During this time, working memory expands with age because of increased processing speeds, metacognition, and improvements of strategy use. At age six, children discover the use of organizational strategies to remember things, and by age nine or ten, they are able to use these strategies spontaneously. An important development that occurs in middle childhood is their growth of knowledge about the world, knowledge develops in specific domains, and they develop theories of intelligence. In middle childhood, social and emotional development grows further beyond the basic needs. According to Freud, middle childhood is characterized by a focus on pursuing knowledge and mastering social and intellectual skills, rather than meeting basic biological needs. During this age, children’s self-esteem becomes more differentiated as they experience success and failure in many different domains and in comparison to other peers. As children grow from early childhood into middle childhood, they have more regulation over their emotions, which help children stay focused on their goals. Middle-aged children’s ability to think about moral issues expands tremendously. At age five or six, children believe fair distribution is equal distribution. By age six or seven, children understand that some should be treated differently based on merit. By age eight, they realize that some people require different treatment because of exceptional needs, and after age eight, children understand that people can agree to change the rules; understand intentions, and the damage done, are considerations in determining a just punishment. There are many things that parents and educators can do in order to help the social and emotion development of middle-aged children. Some of these things include: showing approval for children’s attempts as well as their achievements, letting children know you accept them, and encouraging children to take responsibility for their reactions to events and to understand that they have choices when it comes to their response.


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