Week 1 lecture- Lang. Disorders in Children
Week 1 lecture- Lang. Disorders in Children CSD 4020
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Sullivan on Sunday August 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 4020 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Stacy Wagovich in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 08/30/15
Intro to Audiology 08272015 Impact of hearing loss on individual and society Prevalence of hearing loss 0 91 out of every 1000 individuals in the US have signi cant hearing loss in one or both ears 0 1 out of every 1000 infants in the US is born w severe to profound heanngloss Prevalence increases w age Prevalence more than doubles if you consider individuals older than 65 years of age 0 Why 0 Increase of war 0 Baby boomer generation aging ConsequencesImpact of hearing loss 0 Factors that in uence impact of hearing loss on the individual and the society 0 Severity of loss Outcome is very different if the loss is unilateral and mildmoderate that if it is a bilateral profound loss 0 When it is acquired Prelingual before birth to about 3 years Perilingual 34 years Postlingual 5 years and older 0 Age intervention begins Studies showing intervention before 612 months of age has signi cant impact 0 Type of intervention Hearing Aid Cochlear implant assistive devices Manual vs oralaural Signi cant hearing loss can also affect other aspects of life Psychosocialpersonalitybehavioraltraits Anatomyphysiologyacoustic review 0 External ear Pinna or Auricle 0 Common landmarks Function of outer ear 0 Protection 0 Ampli cation o localization 0 Middle ear also called the tympanic cavity consists of an air lled cavity 0 Primary structure are 3 bones malleus incus and stapes known as the ossicular chain 39 quot 39 Long Process lot incus a litlarllubrium of Malleus E 5 Umbo Pare Tense l 7 Light Fleflex Annular 39 Light Fleflex Cone of Light Ligament Cone of Light Figure 23 Major otoscopic landmarks of the tympanic membrane Cone of light GOOD Quadrants of Middle Ear o Anterior superior o Anterior inferior o Posterior superior o Posterior inferior Protection 0 General anatomy of the external ear and ear canal serves to protect the middle ear and therefore also the brain Localization Differences between ears in level and arrival time at the two ears are used to localize sound in space wout a pinna our ability to localize sound would be poor 0 the pinna is used to determine if sound is coming from the front or the back of the head Anatomy of Middle Ear o Tympanic membrane ear drum Ossicular chain Function of middle ear Impedance matching 0 Vibrations in a low impedance medium air must be transferred to vibrations in uid higher impedance medium 0 Structure and function of ossices allows for impedance matching 0 Limited protection against loud sounds 0 Middle ear muscles contract re exively in response to intense sound and stiffen the ossicular chain Impedance matching is accomplished primarily by 0 Difference in area of the tympanic membrane TM and the stapes footplate 171 or 246 dB 0 Ossicles vibrate around an axis that is not on center Pressure at the stapes footplate is increased bc the fulcrum of the ossicular level system is closer to the stapes than to the TM 131 or 23 dB Anatomy of Inner ear 0 Hair cells sit on top of the basilar membrane 0 3 rows of outer hair cells 1 row of inner Along w hair cells and basilar membrane we have the tectorial membrane 0 Movement of the BM causes the hair cells to move therefore beginning an action potential towards the brain F39ivnl point for Tecmrial membran Pivot point for Basllar membrane Functions of the inner ear 0 Change in mechanical vibrations of the uidmembranes of the inner ear into neural impulses which can then be transmitted to the brain 0 Perform frequency analysis 0 Not ass neurons in the auditory nerve are stimulated for every sound Low frequency sounds activate apical neurons High frequency sounds activate basal neurons 0 Outer hair cells of the normal cochlea O 0 Change length when stimulated Elongate and contract with the stimulus Function is to amplify or enhance the movement of the basilar membrane near the peak of the traveling wave Normal OHC function results in low thresholds and good frequency discrimination Language Disorders in Children CSD 4020 08242015 Distinguish between speech and language 0 Speech l refers to articulation uency voice rate of production coarticulation etc Not the ideas but the way they are produced 0 Language use of conventional symbols words to express thoughts The actual coding of ideas 0 When you collect a quotspeech samplequot what will you be looking for in the child s sample 0 How is that different from a lang sample Expressive vs Receptive Language Receptive language Our understanding of language 0 How could we measure what a child understands about lang Expressive Language Our production of ideas coded into lang o How could this be measured 0 In our clinical work this is the most basic way we can think about a child s language The Speech Chain Model 1 Acoustic level 2 Internal physicalmotor system 3 Linguistic processing Language output Bloom amp Lahey s Model 0 Form grammar syntax morphology phonology structure of Iang Content Vocab semantics meaning of Iang Use pragmatics social communication how Iang is used within social contexts Internal evidence provided by an individual client s perspective and beliefs and an SLP s clinical expertise External evidence consists of welldesigned and controlled experimental studies that result in experimental data by analyzing study results a practitioner can determine whether a particular clinical practice is effective Theories of language deve0pment 826 Why should SLPs care about theory 0 To differentiate from what s normal to abnormal o Theories ultimately have clinical implications 0 Some important practical considerations 0 Differentiating disordered from typical development 0 Theory as to causes will inform treatment decisions 0 Most intervention approaches are based on theory 0 Remember no single theory explains everything Nature vs nurture 0 Two extreme positions 0 Universal grammar Chomsky O Radical behaviorism Skinner The middle ground 0 Most modern theories include a role for both nature and nurture What does behavioral genetics tell us 0 00000 Young children twin studies show estimated heritability of about 24 for language skill Middle childhood heritability rises to 57 Heritability may be lower in extreme environments Heritability may be higher for lang disorders What accounts for the rest Shared and unique environment Gene environment correlation When we choose environments based on our individuality Behaviorism key terms Reinforcement consequences that lead to increase in a behavior 0 0 Positive R providing a reward Negative R taking away something undesirable Can be social material activityrelated o Shaping closing in on a target behavior 0 Learner must become increasingly accurate in order to earn a reward Punishment consequences that lead to decreases in a behavior Antecedent the stimulus that precedes a behavior 0 Language antecedents Extinction behaviors that are not reinforced will gradually disappear o Fixed and variable schedules Chaining teaching a complex behavior by breaking it down into separate steps 0 Each step in the sequence is reinforced until it becomes novel DrillandPractice o Antecedents are provided and desirable responses are reinforced o Shaping and chaining Focus on observable measurable behaviors 0 Aids in clear documentation and progress monitoring Simple to understand and apply 0 Does not require sophisticated grasp of hypothetical constructs o Requires consistency Limitations Constructivism summary Based on writings of Piaget Cognitive development proceeds in a series of stages Both nature and nurture o Inborn mental processes support Iang development 0 Lang itself is not innate Children actively construct their knowledge of the world 0 Natural curiosity and exploration drive to understand 0 Links between motor ability play and language Constructivism key terms 0 Schema 0 Concept or mental category formed as child interacts w the world Assimilation 0 New info is added to an existing schema errors can occur 0 Accommodation 0 Schema is adjusted to account for new info 0 Equilibrium 0 Child seeks balance between assimilation and accommodation Symbolic play 0 Child uses an object to stand for something else 0 Object permanence o Objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen 0 Object constancy 0 An object remains the same regardless of conditions seeing something fro different directions light vs dark out Meansend 0 Beginning of intent planning problem solving Piaget s cognitive stages Sensorimotor 0 Birth 2 years 0 Child experiences world through the senses Preoperational o 27 years 0 magical thinking rapid ang development concrete operations 0 711 years 0 ogica reasoning in the hereandnow formal operations 0 12 years adult 0 beginning of abstract thinking Clinical Applications 0 Understanding the cognitive basis of ang development o Is the child ready Qualitative change over time 0 Understanding the role of active exploration 0 Child as active agent in constructing knowledge Observational play 0 Does the child exhibit representational thought 0 Limitation development not usually so linear 0 Child may be in several stages at once Social lnteractionist theory summary 0 Based originally on work of Vygotsky Social interaction through lang supports cog Development Lang development does not occur in a vacuum 0 Adultchild interaction is key to early lang development SIT terms 0 Zone of proximal development 0 What the learner can accomplish with adult support 0 Maximizes learning Infantdirected talk 0 Thought to help infants make connections Coordinating attention 0 Caregivers follow child s attention focus 0 Adults direct child s attention Scaffolding 0 Adult support for learning a challenging task gradually faded Mediation 0 Teaching quothot to learnquot learner accepts responsibility Parentchild routines o Structured predictable communication child takes active role SIT clinical implications 0 Large impact on educational theory and practice 0 Both regular and special education SLP Parents an integral part or treatment 0 Emphasis on communication across many settings 0 Limitation does not fully explain lang development 0 Based heavily on Western middleclass childrearing practices Emergentist theory summary 0 Relatively new theory 0 Views naturenurture debate as irrelevant 0 Biology interacts w environment to produce learning 0 Data driven approach 0 Learning principles emerge from child s own experience w lang 0 Developmental sequence 0 The whole is greater than the sum of it s parts Assumptions of emergentist coalition model 0 Children choose from multiple cues that are available 0 Importance of given type of cue will change w development 0 Through experience children construct principles of word learning Cues children use 0 quotDumb attention mechanismsquot 0 perceptual salience association frequency Constraintsprinciples 0 Mutual exclusivity whole object taxonomic assumption Socialpragmatic cues 0 Eye gaze pointing child seeks out speaker s intent Linguistic cues o Syntax prosody o Emergentist theory clinical implications 0 Focus on inconsistencies Target emerging features Narrow target leads to broad changes Intervention approaches 0 Lang recasting o Focused stimulation Cognitive Bases of Language Thought in uences language egocentric speech Piaget Egocentric speech 0 Produced in the presence of others quotcommunal monologuequot 0 Not directed toward others or understood by others 0 After age 3 use of egocentric speech decreases Theory of mind and language 0 ToM understanding that others mhave mental states thoughts feelings etc that may differ from one s own 0 Develops gradually beginning in 1st year of life Lessdeveloped theory of mind can limit lang development 0 Autism an extreme example Lang also promotes theory of mind understanding 0 How often child hears talk about mental states 0 Conclusion lang and ToM develop in tandem o Mutually reinforcing
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