First 4 Lecture Notes - Africa
First 4 Lecture Notes - Africa GEOG 1010 - 002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Rhodes on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Daniel A McGowin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Africa Lectu re 1 Wednesday August 19 2015 Africa is a continent not a country surprise 0 55 different countries in Africa the highest number of any continent 0 Africa is referred to as the quotdark continentquot because of skin color but also because it is dark in our minds not a place people commonly know a lot about 0 Absolute 37 degrees N to 35 degrees S bisected by the equator Africa is the only continent with significant land mass in both the northern and southern hemisphere 0 Relative historically remote and isolated Why isolated o Sahara Desert difficult to get into Africa 0 Smooth coastlines sailors have a hard time protecting their ships 0 Size over three times the size of the USA Mental images of Africa 0 Starvation hurting suffering poverty 0 Conflicts war dictators 0 Sand lions giraffes the lion king An example the history of DR Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 0 4th largest population in SubSaharan Africa 0 Largest country by land area in SubSaharan 0 GDP per capita S738 ranked down at 45th of African countries 0 Gone through 2 wars in the past 20 years 0 The second war was called quotThe Great War of Africaquot and didn39t truly end until the early 2000s Zaire O Existed as a country up until the 1990s 0 It was a stable country developing rapidly a hot spot for tourists 0 important when African countries became independent they would rename their country from the European name back to an African name Zaire was named Congo while under colonization changed to Zaire after independence 0 Mobutu was the dictator over Zaire He was a ruthless controlling leader but he kept the country stable An uprising took place the rebels got together and overthrew Mobutu Zaire then became the Democratic Republic of Congo 0 Kabila became the president of DR Congo and tried to get rid of the rebel group that put him in power 0 Katanga is a southern part of DR Congo that wants to break away and be their own country but DR Congo won39t let them because they have a lot of diamonds gold and copper mines O The countries R Congo and DR Congo are both named after the Congo River that flows through both Colonial times 0 Belgian Congo 0 King Leopold II of Belgium personally owned all of Congo It was his playground he abused the people and set up rubber plantations Eventually Belgium decided this was getting out of hand and took it away from the king Africa was the starting point for all humans People went from Africa to other lands Precolonial Africa was civilized Most slave trades got slaves from central Africa because there were few kingdoms or development there 0 3 examples of precolonial kingdoms one from East West and South O In the East Axum Kingdom 100940 AD 0 European Arab and Asian traders stopped in Axum to trade it39s port on the Red Sea was part of the global economy O In the West Mali Empire 1200s 1600s 0 Important for trade as well traded gold and salt which were extremely valuable at the time o The capital Timbuktu was a trading hub Gold traders came up from the south salt traders came down from the north and Europeans came directly to the city to trade o It was a place of knowledge and education had a university O In the South Zulu Kingdom 1816 1897 Although it didn39t even last 100 years it left a lasting impact It had a strong culture that is still present today It39s strong army defeated the Europeans for a long time The Zulu language is a widely spoken language most widely spoken in Southern Africa Africa Lecture 2 Friday August 21 2 15 Languages Except for one or two none of the African languages are official languages of the country they are almost all European language except Ethiopia some are Arabic French is the most common official language English is second Swahili is fifth but is a second language not a first language Afrikaans is a Dutch language not African NigerCongo languages are in the east of South Africa and Germanic languages are in the west of South Africa because during colonization the West was the desired land of South Africa Religion Islam is dominant in the North Christianity is dominant in the South Tanzania has about an equal amount of Islam and Christianity because of trading that took place there In some areas African religions such as voodoo is practiced and is focused on ancestors and showing respect for those who have passed on Falashas are quotblack Jewsquot that left Israel and settled in Africa they are Jews and are discriminated against and persecuted in both Africa and Israel Hinduism can be found in the African island of Mauritius It39s one of the three Hindu countries of the world Nepal and India Strange because it is a religion that doesn39t move It is on this island because of slaves from south Asia that brought their religion with them to the island and eventually out populated the natives on the island Culture Culture in Africa is strong and has survived colonization African culture differs from European culture in marriage wealthy children child care social security etc After the European countries left wars broke out The Zulu Kingdom was ended by the AngloZulu War with the British This was the last standing African kingdom other than Ethiopia and fell into the hands of the British They were allowed to remain but were given the worst land European Contact Africa wasis hard to get to The people were vicious and were fighting peoples They had diseases that Europeans had never experienced before Nicknamed quotwhite man39s gravequot They stayed to the coasts Slave trade existed before the Europeans showed up however the slaves were more like servants to other African kingdom and Arabs They were typically prisoners of war and put to work as servants instead of hard labor Colonies of free slaves 0 Liberia capital is Monrovia named after James Monroe slaves were sent back freed and made into a colony in Africa There were people in Liberia before the American freed slaves showed up however the AmericoLiberians the freed slaves were put in charge even though they were the minority There are still tensions and fights to this day due to this There is a Firestone rubber plantation in Liberia still operating to this day that was set up by US 0 Sierra Leone a British colonystatecountry of freed slaves Blood diamonds are diamonds that are sold to buy weapons to fund a war They have been used in Sierra Leone for war in the past century Two things changed 1 the industrial machine gun revolution the Europeans got advanced weaponry and guns and could wipe out African powers 2 The medical revolution medicine and vaccines to prevent things like Malaria and other African diseases were discovered Soon enough Africa was dominated and carved up Berlin Conference decided Africa39s fate 13 countries were involved in the Berlin conference 0 were African countries They decided which countries got which part of Africa and by 1914 Africa was divided up into countries and dominated by a European power Independence happened for all of African countries typically around the 1960s They are mostly very young countries Repercussions of PostColonization Somalia has the lowest GDP 600 per year Poverty is around 7580 in many countries Education and working population are low Life expectancy in Chad is lowest in the world at 4944 years US is 7956 PostColonization and White Flight White Flight in the US when segregation ended many wealthier people left the cities and built up the suburbs The businesses follow them there Detroit BirminghamHoover are examples where the suburbs are growing fast and prospering while the city is becoming abandoned decrepit buildings Same thing has happened in Africa white people left and the money left Portuguese Colonies were the last to give up colonies across the world in 1975 Revolution happened in Portugal ABOUT THE COLONIES of the people saying we don39t need them give them up A peaceful revolution no one died A carnation revolution the flower was the symbol used Portugal invested nothing in their colonies did not develop anything in the colonies the worst of the colonizing countries Africa Lecture 3 Monday August 24 2015 Portuguese colonies If it were not for the revolution that took place in Portugal it would most likely still have its colonies Ex Angola 0 A large country in southern Africa former Portuguese colony 0 When Portugal set up Angola as a colony all they cared about was moving goods out of Angola and did not invest into the place at all 0 War broke out as soon as Angola became independent MPLA and UNITA fought over the country to decide its government structure MPLA supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba communist side UNITA supported by the USA and South Africa democratic side War devastated the very little infrastructure Angola had 25 years after independence 2003 finally the fighting stopped As soon as the fighting stopped Angola made use of the rich supply of oil they were sitting on Angola is one of the top oil producers in Africa Their economy has skyrocketed since utilizing their oil 0 Cabinda is a part of Angola separated by the Congo that wants to be independent however that is the area where most of the oil is An ongoing issue 0 There are still land mines all throughout the country The most total number of mines in the world It39s so bad they have a Miss Land Mine Pageant for ladies who have lost body parts to land mines it39s that common OOOOO Ex 2 Mozambique 0 Another Portuguese colony 0 On the Indian Ocean side of Southern Africa 0 As soon as Mozambique gained independence fighting broke out regarding government structure here as well 0 FRELIMO Soviet Union and China communist O RENAMO South Africa and Rhodesia Zimbabwe Angola vs Mozambique Mozambique stopped fighting 10 years sooner than Angola Built up country through an industrial manufacturing economy instead of an agricultural economy like almost all the rest of Africa Mozambique was able to become the largest manufacturing state in southern Africa its one of the fastest growing economies in all of Africa French Colonies West Africa was the French area The French ruled their colonies as one large place not as individual countries France pushed its culture education and language on colonies The Africans were given some rights and were considered French citizens Algeria wanted independence fought war and won France than decided to give up all their colonies Ex Cote d39voire quotThe Ivory Coastquot in English 0 Abidjan one of the largest French speaking cities in the world a well developed city Blood diamonds used here The top producer of chocolate 0 Coco beans grown in the country but they rely heavily on forced child labor to gather and harvest the coco pods since kids can climb more easily 0 French involvement France didn39t just pack up and leave once Cote d39voire got independence France still sends troops when necessary to get rid of corrupt government or to assist in humanitarian efforts Of all the colonizing countries France is the only one to still be directly involved with their former colony in Africa Ex 2 Mali 0 France still helps out Mali as well When Mali became independent an area called Senegal split and broke off from Mali after less than a year In 2002 in the World Cup Senegal the colonized country beat France the colonizer and it was a big deal for the people Italian quotEmpirequot colonies The Italian Empire was a joke They tried to be the Roman Empire but never managed to be powerful The Italians got east and some north sections of Africa After they got Liberia they wanted Ethiopia as well Italy never conquered or colonized Ethiopia Ethiopia dominated Italy in battle The Ethiopian Empire lasted from 1137 1974 and is the only African country to never be colonized Ethiopia is a symbol of pride for Africa Red yellow and green are symbolic colors for Africa that come from the Ethiopian flag They are colors of resistance and are used in many other African countries39 flags Haile Selassie was the last emperor of Ethiopia and was overthrown by internal conflict Somalia a territory of Italy not a country because the place doesn39t have government economy or control of the population A failed state The government only has control in the capital The northern area 39Somaliland39 declares itself a country Somalia is almost 100 the same ethnic people same religion and same language The fight is between the different clans Clans are based off historic people groups Darood and Hawiye still fight Clan loyalty is strong no one cares about the country only clans Siyaad Barre of the Darood clan tried to get rid of the clans when he was the leader but people like Ali Mahdi and Mohammed Fareah Aidid get their power from the clans and they are from the Hawiye clan Loyalty goes in this order family subclan clan and then nation The US tried to step in and help Somalia but it doesn39t turn out well when an outsider tries to resolve a family fight Africa Lecture 4 Wednesday August 26 2 15 Somalia 0 turned to piracy to survive targeting ships of opportunity A lot of people who were pirates were rebel groups using the goods for to buy weapons similar to the blood diamond practice Equatorial Guinea 0 number one economy in all of Africa a Spanish colony very competitive economically with the rest of the world a tiny country with lots of oil however they have the most corrupt leader in the world Ghana 0 A former British colony doing well in terms of economy and being stable British were the best colonizers because they built up infrastructure educated the people and invested in the country Ghana was set up well to succeed It has been stable doesn39t have a very corrupt government they build their own dam a leader of green energy hydroelectric dam large solar field make so much energy on the dam they sell it They utilize their rainforest instead of cutting it down diversified its economy through developing tourism caves and canopy hopping and recreational lake Kenya 0 has embraced heritage and Maasai lifestyle nomadic lifestyle Doing well economically and contained conflict They Maasai shield is on the Kenyan flag It39s a former British colon There are corrupt elections and Muslim extremism in Kenya now becoming unstable Ghana Nigeria Kenya most educated countries in Africa thanks to the British Gabon 0 third best GDP in Africa number one if exclude islands a French colony They have oil but are not part of OCEP the group that does a lot of the petroleum trading in the world Therefore they get to control how much or how little they will sell the oil for They39ve been able to stabilize their country for utilizing their oil They39re not only relying on oil they39ve diversified their economy by also doing logging and ecotourism for French through the rainforests Botswana 0 5th best GDP of all of Africa at 15929 number 2 GDP if exclude islands They have diamond mines the richest in the world The diamond industry boosts the economy they39re proud of it it39s on their stamp Legitimate industry not blood diamonds But they do force people off the land if they find diamonds Botswana is politically stable They have a House of Chiefs which is a group of 25 13 people from each of the largest ethnic groups also have a president The house of chiefs makes decisions the members are selected by the ethnic group Sadly Botswana is number 2 in the world for HIV prevalence 234 of adults have HIV You39re lucky of you live 6 months after you find you have HIV Diseases 0 HIV prevalence is high in southern Africa Swaziland is number 1 Botswana will struggle as HIV takes the younger generational 0 There is a ruralurban divide in Africa urban places have a higher percentage of HIV but lack of health care in rural places keeps people from even figuring out if they have HIV before they die Also if it is discovered in the rural areas that you have HIV then you are ostracized and you usually end up going to the city So in villages you can39t get tested for HIV and if then if you do and you have it you are kicked out South Africa quotbug chasersquot go out and try to catch HIV because they have a depressed outlook that they are quotgoing to get it anywayquot and then some who have HIV feel the need to spread to everyone Common African diseases are infectious diseases as compared to the US where the common diseases are chronic lifestyle diseases HIVAIDS Malaria Trypanosomiasis Yellow Fever Schistosomiasis spread through contaminated water Onchocerciasis river blindness Dracunculiasis Ebola bleed to death internally some strands have 90 chance of dying Many of these tropical diseases spread by mosquitos flies bats Medicine is expensive or dangerous or has serious side effects or there are sanitation problems There is hope the Guinea Worm Dracunculiasis is almost eradicated we39re down to only 6 cases in the world