Chapter 2: The Cell
Chapter 2: The Cell 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Chapter 2 55 The Cell Basic Unit of Structure and Function u Cells are the structural and functional unit of all living organisms composed of characteristic parts which work together to allow each cell type to perform specific functions Cells vary in both shape amp size reflective of function Commonly shared characteristics perform general functions necessary to sustain life obtain nutrients materials from surrounding fluids must dispose of wastes shape amp integrity must be maintained membrane amp intracellular environment cell division replacemaintenance amp increase numbers for growthrepair The Study of Cells Cytology utilize microscopy to assess cell shape amp structures a Cell function is generally reflected in mamaV size or shape 4 Func ons v covering lining storage movement connection defense communication reproduction Range of cell Sizes Size 10 m Human height 1 m I s Some muscle and nerve cells 7 01 m Ostrich egg f 1 0 quot largest human 1 mm 39 cells Human oocyte 100 pm Most plant and animal cells Red blood cell 0 Most bacteria 10pm Mitochondrion 1 pm 100 nm DNA and RNA viruses 39 39 Ribosomes 50 V PX Large macromolecules proteins and lipids ii S j Small molecules 01 nm At0m 10nm 1nm Unaided eye Light microscope Electron microscope Human body is composed of somatic cells but also contains germ or sex cells Microscopy 39 Cllta b magnify 1000X eleCtron microscopy detail to 025m microscopy Individual cells are relatively transparent and difficult to distinguish from neighbors easner to see when stained with dyes that react with specific intracellular structures Prototypical Cell Copyright McGrawHill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Membranebound organelles Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Nuclear membrane Nucleoplasm Nucleolus Lysosome Nonmembrane bound organelles Iquot r Fiibosomes I 39 A 3 Free 39 g 5quot J P ribosomes I l 39 Fixed 1 quot IV ribosomes 7 i r K b V I Plasma membrane 1 a 39 Centrosome 39 v a v Q a Proteasome Modifications of Cytoskeleton plasma membrane Microvilli Cilia Cytosol Flagellum intracellular fluid Microtubule Inclusions Vesicle combines features of several different cell types Three basic components plasma membrane outer limiting barrier cytoplasm general term for cellular contents cytosol organelles amp inclusions site of metabolic activity nucleus control center Plasma Cell Membrane Also called the plasmaemma Flexible layer serves to divide internal components intracellular from external environment extracellular ICF amp ECF example of ECF lFinterstitial fluid antiGadherina a PM marker Selective barrier Surface area amp cell size httpwwwabcam compageconfigdatasheetampintAbI D6528 Composition and Structure of Membrane External mix of lipids and proteins forming a fluid matrix lipids form main structural component and proteins determine function Internal Cytode Lipids Gimmmol m 9909 httpwwwnaturecomhorizonlivingfrontierbackgroundfigsmembranef2html Filaments 0 Cholesterol cytoskeieton Peripheral Integral protein protein CYTOPLASM O O O O O O O O O O O 0 General Functions of PM quot 0 O O O O O O O O Extracellular fluid Peripheral protein What IS the function of the glycocalyx I Glycolipid A t 39 V r cquot o O O c o 39 1 39 carbohydrate P Li39liidiS 9 v A network of p P P l molecule 5 39 quotquot 3L complex Phospholipid i 39 39 a Cgg carbOhydrateS bilayer containing 3 proteins N quotP 39a a398 quot 39 differs between of phospholipid molecule as 39 cell types 3quot hi i i Periph gpin39 I l laments of 4quot cytoskeleton n Contains receptors that recognize and respond to 3 Physical barrier Phospholipid bilayer separates molecular signals substances inside and outside the cell 2 lntercellular connection Establishes a flexible boundary protects 4 Selective permeability Regulates entry and exit of ions cellular contents and supports cell structure nutrients and waste molecules through the membrane ProteinSpecific Functions of the PM PM proteins perform a variety of important Functions of Plasma Membrane Proteins activities that promote o 0 0 o 4 6 9 overall functions of the J l H y W membrane these are mm 39 quot 39m 1 0A0 om t n S Selective transport Enzyme Cell surface channel receptor intercellular attachment 1 3 anchorage for the H rm cytoskeleton 39 39 quot Wquot 5 enzyme activity I I Cell surtace Cell adhesion Attachment to g identity marker thecytoskeleton signal transduction Transport Across the PM Factors that influence membrane permeability amp thus transport of material across PM transport proteins PM structure PL composition concentration gradients ionic charge lipid solubility molecular size 39 l m lim llllll lull 10 Passive Transport 32 O O Substances move 3339 across PM without the a expenditure of energy 1 concentration gradient Passive processes Simple diffusion H Osmosis a a diffusion of water Simpiedi usion Facii tatedidiffusion Facilitated diffusion Pa sivetran mrt specific carrier a W Bulk filtration or bulk movement solvent amp solute move across PM pressure gradient Osmosis H httpwwwhimalayancrystalsaltcomwellnessosmosisgif Active Transport A mechanism that requires energy and involves moving Hilttaly rctive Transport substances against their concentration gradient Emmi iiiiiiiiiiii Active processes LorirEStTEeSrmits cells to maintain internal 39 ionmolecule conc s bulk transport m moves large structuresin bulk across PM macromolecules Cancenua nn gradient 12 NaK Pump Phospl lolipid blilayelr Ion pump antiport mechanism Extracellular fluid r ATP binding site AdElll DSifllE triphosphate ATP and three 7 sodium ions Na r bind to sites DIl I the cytoplaSntio surface of the sodllumpotassium pump a transmembrane transport protein SodiumPotassium Pump Transport protein resumes original shape This transport protein reverts lJaclc to its origlnal shape resulting in the release of the llt ions into the cytoplasm After the Kf ions diffuse away from the sodiumpotassium pump it is ready to begin the process again Primary active transport mechanism why Breakdown of ATP a releases energy s ape requires energy fromATP39 breakdown 39 ADP and phosphate P resulting in a release of energy39 that causes the sodiumpotassium pump to ohalnge conformation shape and release the litlaf ions to the extracellular fluid How does this differ from a secondary active transport system As the three Na ions difluse away from the sodium potassium pump into the extracellular fluid two itf lonls front the extracellular fluid bind to sites on the extracellular su ace of the sodiumpotassium pump At the same tllme the phosplhate produced earlier by ATP hydrolysis is released into the cytoplasm 13 Secondary Active Transport coupled system transport driven indirectly Na nit i pataaai uni gifaminn aaid i 39 7 I I i M 7 I J i e i i i Li H L 7 J Eaaatiaa Finn1p 1 aatiaaau mp I aatiiuni Na Hay Iii pataaaiura is amina aairj i quot Firiiiriairz ia aatiara pump aaaandiaryr J aatiiaa pump aadiurn rr i i i K 14 httpwwwbiologyarizonaeduchhproblemsetskidneysmetalsO7thtml Extracellular uid Plasma membrane Membrane proteins Plasma membrane opens Secretory quot proteins Release of vesicle components into the extracellular uid and integration of vesicle membrane components into the plasma membrane Exocytosis Bulk Transport OUT A process that adds to the PM 15 Endocytosis Bulk Transport IN b Pinocytosls A process that takes away from the PM Clathrin 16 caveohn c Receptormediated endocytosis Cytoplasm Nonspecific term for all of the materials contained between the PM and nucleus contains cytosol viscous syruplike fluid intracellular fluid organelles inclusions large amp diverse grp of chemical substances stored by cells Cytoolasm l Cytosol I I Organelles 17 r mlcrptubul 39e 39 x 9 Vquot gt J Q mooth quot 395 I A r u M L t I 11 h D 4amp3 x 0 V 39Vlt39 39 ntrio s1 It is YOUR responsibility to know all the 1 organelles along with rxiagend le u 4 trsefssisi s rquot 39 their fu notion felgih39cltiarpny lope 39 i 3 t a 396 k v 39 I 0 l K i i Iquot ma n39 II Iquot II I 1 A l 39 1 p rgiso 52 2 I39quot39 W x 39 quot zs 39M 39Mg e Answer Content ReVIew m 39dws i i g39 quot Q 39 ueSt39On 5 pp 1amp7 39 39 1 copyright us39sellKlghtl V M 39 I WIwrkmicomau Kan 18 Nucleus Control center of cellular activities largest organelle Composed of 3 basic structures nuclear envelope nucleolus chromatin httpmicromagnetfsueducellsnucleusnucleushtml Nuclear Envelope Ana omy Chromatln of the Nucleus Nucleolus genetic material DNA Endoplasmic Retlculum gene discrete functional unit Ribosomes Nuclear Envelope Double membrane Boundary nucleopasm controls entry amp exit of materials selectively permeable less constrained perinuclear space Nuclear lamina protein filament network that assists with maintenance of nucleus shape scaffold to organize DNA Nuclear pores pore proteins gate persons Outer Membrane Nuclear Pore Perlnuclear Complex Space Inner Membrane NUC39ear Envelope Nuclear Anatomy Lamina Rlbosomes 20 Nucleoli Darkstaining spherical bodies within nucleus Not membranebound Function produce ribosomal subuan produce rRNA amp combine with imported proteins export smalllarge ribosomal subunits F39 39 l TheNucleolus 1 Vy r e Nucleolus Envelope 39 A 21 Chromatin Composed of equal amounts of DNA and histone proteins nucleosome fundamental unit of chromatin cluster of8 histone proteins with DNA winded around them orderly packaging gene regulation extended vs condensed chromosomes Chromatin and Condensed Chromosome Structure Solenoid Chromatin Fiber Nuclear Pore Nucleosomes DNA Chromatin I Histones Figure 1 Short region or DNA doubie helix Beads on a stnng39 quot form ct chromatin 30er chromatin fibre of packed rtucmosowws Smuos oi chromosome m an j 39 extendtxi form 0 39 u 39 39 quot39393939391 m o 1 z o Condensed motion of chromosome g y I X 39 I 39r 5 Z lr Entire mtotrc Ch VOITYJSO me Telolmere Centromere Condensed Chromosome 22 httpwwwglaacukcancerpathology genemechawestresearch1 htm Life Cycle of a Cell 39 Somatic cell cycle Comprised of 2 phases lnterphase amp Mitotic phase Prophase Mitotic M phase What is Go Interphase C G1 phase Growth v 7 quotW u19 lie 1quot i Mitosis occurs during tissue growth maintenance amp repair lnterphase time a cell is carrying out its routine activities 23 Aging and the Cell Aging normal continuous process reduced metabolic function Tissue Death cells can die by two distinct mechanisms necrosis alteration of structure or number of organelles complete breakdown of cellular homeostasis with a largely uncoordinated breakdown of all cellular constituents httpwwwcelldeathdeencycloaporevrevfigsrevfig2 htm Apoptosis Apoptotlc Bodies cell shrinks chromatin condenses quotBaddingquot 3399 PhagozytOSGd necrotic cells swell as they begin to die PM Ha noin ammation integrity lost with release of IC material gs it 29 ea gray I a inflammation 5 V 39 39 Viable 5quotquot Cir apoptOSIs can it a i w a programmed cell death oggy death process is driven from within the cell as xbca K 5 i a reaction to stimuli that may or may not be qu L 1 i 3 I intrinsically lethal zquot r 39 3 c no cellular contents released no r x I 0 far 39 39 9 0878 nuc 03f Inflam matlon ngJSSI ss Cell becomes leaky lysis causes in amo blebbing mation is a means to remove unwanted cells 24