Chapter 2 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Chapter 2 Our Sexual and Reproductive Anatomy 393 Genitalia the external reproductive organs of the man or woman 3 External Female Anatomy 0 Vulva latin for covering Consists of the mons veneris the labia majora the labia minora the clitoris and the vaginal and urethral openings 0 Mons Veneris a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the area where the pubic bones come together 0 Labia Means quotmount of venusquot Considered to be very erotic after puberty Sensitivity to touch is dependent on the density of nerve endings in a particular area of skin Numerous never endings gently stimulation is pleasureable This fatty tissue cushions the pubic region during intercourse Becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty Researchers believe that pubic hair is meant to be sexually attractive Until the 19705 it was uncommon for women to shave their pubic area This changed as bikini bottoms and panties became smaller Consists of two outer labia majora and two inner labia minora elongated folds of skin which in the sexually unstimulated state cover the vaginal and urethral openings Labia majora two elongated folds of the skin extending from the mons to the perineum in women lts outer surfaces becomes covered with pubic hair during pube y Labia minora two hairless elongated folds of the skin located between the labia majora in women They meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood Perineum refers to the hairless bit of skin between the anus and either the vaginal opening or the scrotum The pinkish and hairless labia minora are located between and sometime protrude beyond the labia majora Some afrian groups Hottentots consider it to be highly erotic for the labia to be elongated Girls are taught at an early age to pull on it Clitoral hood the part of the labia minora that covers the clitoris in women very sensitive to touch Bartholin39s glands glands located at the base of the labia in women that contribute a small mount of an alkaline uid to their inner surfaces during sexual arousal the uid counteracts the normal acidity of the outer vagina because sperm cannot live in an acidic environment 0 Clitoris a small elongated erectile structure in women that develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis It has no know function other than to focus sexual sensations Greek word meaning hill or slope The body or shaft of the clitoris is located beneath the clitoral hood 1 inch long and onequarter diameter Contains two parallel cylinders of spongy tissue called corpora cavernosa which towards the rear form much larger structures called crura The spongy tissues of the clitoris engorge with blood during sexual arousal Surgical removal of the clitoris was sometimes performed in the United States and Europe during the victoria times in order to prevent girls from masturbating and growing up quotoversexedquot Clitoridectomy is no longer legal in America but is common in Northern African countries middle east Malaysia and Indonesia This secretions of magma can accumulate beneath the clitoral hood and result in discomfort during sex 0 The Vaginal Opening Vestibular area refers to the area between the two labia minora 0 Latin for quotentrance hallquot Lots of nerve endingssensitive to touch Bulbocavernosus muscle a ring of sphincter muscles that surrounds the vaginal opening in women or the root of the penis in men Sexually experiences woman can learn to contract these muscles during sex 0 lnexperienced women may involuntarily contact as a result of nervousness making penetration difficult Hymen the thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening in sexually inexperienced women 0 Until shortly before birth the hymen separated the vagina from urinary system 0 Has one or more openings that allows for menstrual ow 0 The hymen sometimes ruptures before sex tampon sports 0 The Urethral Opening Uretha the passageway from the bladder to the exterior of the body 0 Breasts in women glands that provide milk for infants mammary glands Considered highly erotic by most men in Western societies Develop due to an increase of estrogen during puberty produced by ovaries Common for one breast left to be larger than the other Each gland is connected to a nipple which is also sensitive to touch The darkened area around the nipple is called the areola and the small bumps are glands that secrete oil to keep the nipples lubricated during breastfeeding During the late stages of pregnancy a hormone called prolactin causes the glands to produce milk A baby s sucking causes the pituitary gland to produce a hormone called oxytocin which results in the ejection of milk 19605 boobs jobs began 0 Internal Female Anatomy 0 Vagina The shreathlike canal in a woman that extends from the vulva to the cervix and that receives the penis during sex Serves as the birth canal The vaginal walls have three layers 0 The inner layers has a soft mucosal surface similar to that of the inside of the mouth 0 The rising levels of puberty causes the walls to thicken and becomes more elastic and highly vascularized During menopause the ovaries atrophy and the walls become thin again like before puberty also decrease in blood supply which decreases lubrication The vagina is a self cleansing organ A large muscle pubococcygeus muscle which is more richly innervated with nerves surrounds the vagina o It has been found that women who have vaginal sensation during intercourse have a weak pubococcygeus muscle Grafenberg G spot small sensitive area in the front wall 0 Only 10 or fewer women have a G spot One is every 4000 to 5000 girls is born without a vagina it can be surgically construcuted o Uterus The womb The hollow muscular organ in women where the fertilized egg normally implants The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus Broad part of the uterus is called the fundus Three layers 0 Endormetrium where the fertilized egg implants Myometrium strong middle layer of muscles which contract during labor 0 Perimetrium external cover 0 Fallopian Tubes Extend 4 inches laterally from both sides Finger like projections called mbria are at the ends and they pick up an egg after it is expelled from the ovary o Ovaries Two functions 0 Produce eggs 0 Produce female hormones estrogen and progensterone At birth a girl will have all the immature eggs that she will ever have 300000 to 400000 Each egg is surrounded by some other cells and contained within a thin capsule to form what is called primary follicle Only 400 eggs will ever mature 00 External Male Anatomy 0 The Penis Outer Appearance Both reproductive and a urinary function Primary organ Circumcision in men the removal of all or part of the foreskin of the penis In women the removal of the clitoral hood 0 The Penis lnternal Structure Body visible Consist of three parallel cylinders of spongy tissue two corpora cavernosa on top of a corpus spongiosum on the bottom Corona the raised rim at the boarder of the shaft and glans Uretha passageway for sperm and urine Glans Roots Surrounded by bulbocavernosus and the ischiocavernosus that aid in urination and ejaculation When a man becomes sexually aroused the arteries going to the penis dilate and the many cavities of the cavernous and spongy bodies ll with blood Values in the veins close and the penis expands o Scrotum Sac located beneath the penis that contains testicles Produces sperm Typically 93 degrees Sparsely covered with hair many sweat glans Small muscle bers that contract when it is cold to help draw the testicles closer to the body cavity for warmth When it is hot they relax and hang 0 Internal Male Anatomy 0 Testicles Develop from the same embryonic tissue as the ovaries Two functions 0 Produce sperms 0 Produce male hormones androgens and testosterone Millions of new sperm start to be produced each day in several hundred seminiferous tubules Each testicle is suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord helps raise and lower the testicles in response to the environment ln right handed men its normal for the left testicle to hang lower and vice versa 0 Duct System Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules They pass through a four part duct system The seminiferous tubules converge to form the epididymis coiled tubes that can be felt o the top and back of each testicle Sperm take up to 6 weeks to mature Then they go through the vas deferens During orgasm they are forced into the ejaculatory ducts Two ejaculatory ducts open into the urethra o Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles Seminal vesicles two structures in a man that contribute many substances 0 the seminal uid Prostate gland secretes all of these substances and another substance that causes semen to temporarily coagulate after ejaculation thus helping to prevent spillage fro the vagina Also secretes antibiotic possibly to prevent the male and female reproductive systems from infections 0 Cowper39s Gland Two pea sized structures located beneath the prostate Product alkaline uid prior to orgasm The uid neutralizes acidity of the urethra so sperm is not destroyed