Gothic, Early Renaissance: Flemish
Gothic, Early Renaissance: Flemish ARH 132
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Petrin on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 132 at University of Miami taught by Joel Hollander in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art II in Art History at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Gothic Painting Total of three visual analysis papers due for writing credit Final Monday December 14th 1 Gothic A Formal Elements 1 4 5 Composition where the artist places an object or how it is arranged Stable symmetry most important figure places along central vertical axis CVA arrange forms in implicit triangular format pointed arches and golden background can be used to identify a piece from the Gothic era Dynamic emphasizes diagonal thrust virgin Mary identified with blue garment largest figure is centralized symmetrical angels arranged on sides re ects emotion C010r1 Vibrant primary colors red yellow blue secondary colors green orange purple complimentary color scheme Muted earth tones monochromatic black white and grays Use of Light and Shadow 3dimensional volume effect create volume mass and weight 1 Even Distribution 2 Dramatic Chiaroscuro Tenebrism Rembrandt Perspective gt Depthdistance a Linear Madonna Enthroned has limited linear perspective Gothic period outlook on life was mystical golden background is symbolic and transports the viewer to heaven spiritual context Bubonic plague 1350 decimates population and the feudal system collapsed new emerging aesthetic after Gothic period ends b Aerial atmospheric golden backgrounds deemphasized use of perspective in Cimabue s overlapping of subjects spatial order c Foreshortening illusion that shortens the length of a limb or torso dramatic arm gesture of figure bending over Christ figure illusion of arm extending back into space Figure a Drapery represent clothing on figure weight mass and volume of subject using clothing schematic network of lines present in Cimabue s Madonna Enthroned clothes ideal functioning not realistic parallel lines in drapery Giottos s Madonna Enthroned is depicted with formfitting clothing that still reveals the mass and shape underneath b Pose seated pose in both Madonna Enthroned difficult to show depth in seated position emphasizes lack of perspective Giotto highlights while Cimabue s piece is at with minimal highlights on a dark composition c Facial features naturalistic Giotto versus schematic Cimabue d Gesture relies on hand position and gesture to direct the eye to the Christ Child subject head tilt is more relaxed and natural in Giotto B Context Middle Ages 3 Grew after collapse of the Roman Empire 4 Feudalism agricultural economic system composed of serfs C Cimabue 1 Madonna Enthroned relies on hand position and gesture to direct the eye to the Christ Child subject D Giotto 1 Pieces give illusion of light and shadow 2 Arena Chapel prototype of Sistine chapel Giotto painted entire room last judgement scene is found on furthest wall worked towards classical naturalism GrecoRoman inspiration complete rejection of paganism that revives Christianity during the medieval period no golden background fresco wall painting blue is rudimentary attempt at aerial perspective represents the sky atmosphere 3 Crucifixion primary color colorist 4 Lamentation dynamic arrangement emotional complimentary colors drapery falls in an irregular pattern but still conveys weight mass and volume of figure underneath 5 Colorist sense of naturalism naturalistic use of light and shadow believablerealistic sense of light and shadow II Eaer Renaissance Flemish Flanders A A Context Political Northern European areas controlled by the Dukes of Burgundy Areas encompassing parts of modern FR Germany Belgium and Holland Context SocioEconomic Urban middleclass recovery after Bubonic Plague prosperity of merchants and crafts workers Context Cultural Overlaps with development in Florence yet independent artistic cultures patronsgt private Context aesthetic Emphasized light and shadow Naturalistic figures Religious themes and settings fully integrated with daily routine and contemporary life Robert Campin aka Master of Flemalle Merode Altarpiece Central panel iconography Archangel Gabriel and virgin Mary have similar faces androgyny starlike symbol on Mary could be conception imagery Anachronistic against time takes places in early 15th century home rather than during bible times a Hidden symbols treated as normal part of scene religious meanings widel understood b OT prayer shawl glazed eathernware w Hebrew writing c NT lilies gtvirginity snuffed out candle gt immaculate conception wind blown pages gt Holy Spirit d Drapery metallic crisp and starched linear folds are not realistic early Flemish works depict excessive amounts of fabric textiles were major income for merchant class right panel Joseph i linear receding lines indicate depth ii aerial view into deep space elevated height signifies Joseph is on second oor view from above of village below b iconography hidden mousetraps drain board for Wine 9 Eucharist realistic left panel a figures patrons kneeling gesturing W piety selfportrait versus OT prophet realistic representation of features b iconography redrose bush 9 Virgin amp the Passion c Perspective i linear ii atmospheric 111 Jan van Eyck 13901441 significance most famousinnovative Flemish painter of 15C biographyemployment gtgt gtgt 1 142224 court of John of Bavaria count of Holland at The Hague 2 1425 court painter and valet de chambre to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy undertook several secret missions 3 142829 trip to Spain and Portugal in connection w negotiations that resulted in marriage of Philip of Burgundy and Isabella of Portugal in 1430 medium oil perfected the technique striking realism in microscopic detail permits precise objective description carefully applied blended brushstrokes built up in transparent layers slow drying process rendering A Ghent Altarpiece 1432 wing exteriors closed composition registered horizontal bands of narrative grand size upper register OT prophetssibyls middle register Annunciation Gabriel and Mary perspective aerial 9 view of city linear 9 rafters lower register donors church s patron saints John Baptist John the Evangelist kneeling realistic agedness center niche appear to be statues depicts extreme control and use of light and shadow to create a dramatic believable sense of weight and volume drapery is believable and follows rules of gravity Van Eyck Giotto Last Judgment tempera paint in Giotto s versus oil paint in Van Eyck van Eyck has more texture esh and facial hair very realistic fabric falls according to laws of gravity with irregular creases crown symbolizes offer to all people upper register open Adam and Eve aesthetic realism narrative after the Fall depiction of Cain and Abel above Adam and Eve setting niche isolated from nature figures realistic recognize their nakedness physiognomy is scrawny and malnourished musculature is realistic dramatic contrast using light and shadow of his esh and the background Adam appears dazed and confused detailing of veins and musculature Eve s hair is split and unkempt appears to be expecting swollen abdomen gazes introspective poses contrapposto lightshadow models forms to create 3d decorativeness contrast starkness to splendor of angelic musicians perspective of lower register is in aerial perspective linear perspective in middle lower register center panel depiction of Christ enthroned in heaven Madonna and St John the Baptist on each side linear perspective receding into space angels on each side playing harpsichord anachronistic did not exist during Christ s era 0 Wedding Portrait 1434 Textbook second wife Italian and Flemish international business van Eyck present in painting signature van Eyck was here patron Giovanni Arnolfini prosperous Italian banker settled in Bruges contemporary Flemish upper middle class setting domestic appears to be marrying second wife could be taking an oath allowing his wife to work on his behalf while he is away composition bilateral symmetry color complimentary lightshadow directed perspective lineartilted window oorboards rafters above table bed more accurate sliver of aerial perspective in mirror and sliver of window on wall convex mirror shows accurate realistic distortion distortion in mirror transforms window jamb into a symbolic cross blessing the exchange between man and wife or soontobe wife two witnesses to exchange could be linked to having to have witnesses to a marriage van Eyck included in visitors iconography hidden emblems of wealth piety amp married life domestic life rosary beads St Margaret Candle presence of holy spirit Fruit affording citrus symbolizes wealth sweetness symbolizes fertility and love between man and wife dog loyalty fidelity realistic depiction of fur convex mirror wife is gathering up excessive fabric from dress could be expecting as stomach appears distended could be a fashion statement similar to Merode altarpiece green compliments use of red in drapery and furnishings fur coat and broadrimmed hat worn by Arnolfini clogs holy moment or sight clogs removed typical gift of husband to wife single candle also part of wedding ceremony