Psychology Intro, Ch 1, and 2
Psychology Intro, Ch 1, and 2 Psych 201
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kasey Cox on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 201 at a university taught by Dr. Richard Pak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Chapter 2 The Biology of Mind Biology Behavior and Mind Plato correctly located the mind in the head while Aristotle believed the mind was in the heart 0 Franz Gall a German physician proposed that phrenology studying bumps on the skull could reveal a person s mental abilities and character traits o Phrenology succeeded in focusing on the localization of function in the brain l idea that various brain regions have particular functions 0 Biological Perspective concerned with the links between bio and behavior Includes psychologist working in neuroscience behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology o Discovered Body composed of cells Nerve cells conduct electricity and talk to one another by sending chemical messages across synaptic gaps Specific brain systems serve speci c functions We integrate info processed in these different brain systems to construct our experience of sights sounds meanings memories pain passion etc Our adaptive brain is wired by our experience o We are biopsychosocial systems Neural Communication Humans and animals have similar information systems Neurons o Neurons the basic building blocks of the nervous system Nerve cells 0 All neurons have a cell body dendrites axons and axon terminals Cell body the cell s life support center Dendrite bushy branching bers that receive info and conduct impulses toward the cell body Dendrites listen They re short Axon the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Axons speak They re long Axon Terminalsform junctions with other cells Myelin Sheath a layer of fatty tissue that segmentally insulates axons and enables greater transmission speeds as neural impulses hop from one node to the next Laid down up to around 25 years old neural ef ciency judgment and self control grows along with it 0 Multiple sclerosis results if myelin sheath degenerates 0 Loss of muscle control 0 Neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons In response neuron res an action potential Action potential a neural impulse a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon 0 Your brain is more complex than a computer but slower at executing simple responses 0 Neurons generate electricity from chemical events lons electrically charged atoms are exchanged The uid outside axon s membrane has positively charged ions the uid inside axon s membrane has mostly negatively charged ions Resting Potential positive outside negative inside state of an axon Axon s surface is selectively permeable only allows certain things through its gates 0 When neuron a res the lst section of the axon opens its gates amp charged sodium ions ood through cell membrane This depolarizes that section causing another axon channel to open then more follow 0 During a resting pause the refractory period the neuron pumps the charged sodium ions back outside so it can re again 0 Most signals are excitatory like pushing a neuron s accelerator 0 Some are inhibitory like pushing a neuron s brake 0 Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse o If excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity the combined signals trigger an action potential 0 Increasing level of stimulation above the threshold wont increase the neural impulse s intensity The neuron s action is an ALL OR NONE RESPONSE o A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to re and to re more often but doesn t affect the strength or speed How Neurons Communicate Synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron The tiny gap at this junction is the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft 0 When an action potential reaches the knoblike terminals at an axon s end it triggers the release of chemical messengers o Neurotransmitters chem messengers that cross the synaptic gaps btwn neurons When released by sending neuron they travel across the synapse amp bind to receptor sites on receiving neuron thereby in uencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse Reuptake a neurotransmitter s reabsorption by he sending neuron How Neurotransmitters In uence Us Neurotransmitter systems don t operate in isolation they interact and their effects vary w the receptors they stimulate Acetylcholine plays a role in learning and memory It is the messenger at every junction between motor neurons which carry info from brain and spinal cord 0 the body s tissues and skeletal muscles When it is released to our muscle cell receptors the muscle contracts If it s transmission is blocked the muscles cannot contract and were paralyzed o Endorphins The brain produces its own naturally occurring opiates Our body releases several types of neurotransmitter molecules similar to morphine in response to pain and vigorous exercise How Drugs and Other Chemicals Alter Neurotransmission When ooded with arti cial opiates the brain may stop producing its own natural opiates Then when the drug s withdrawn the brain may then be deprived of any form of opiate causing intense discomfort Drugsother chemicals affect brain chemistry at synapses often by either exciting or inhibiting neuron s ring Agonist molecules may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects Antagonists also bind to receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitters functioning Ex botulin The Nervous System 0 The body s speedy electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems Brain Spinal Cord Central Nervous System body s decision maker 0 Peripheral Nervous System responsible for gathering info and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body Nerves bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles glands and sense organs 0 Motor Neurons neurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands o Interneurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs The Peripheral Nervous System 0 2 Components Somatic and Autonomic o Somatic Nervous System controls the body s skeletal muscles Also called skeletal nervous system 0 Autonomic Nervous System controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs Sympathetic Nervous System arouses the body mobilizing its energy in stressful situations Fight or ight Quicken heart rate raise BP slow digestion raise blood sugar cool you with sweat Parasympathetic Nervous System calms the body conserving its energy Decrease heart rate lower blood sugar etc The Central Nervous System 0 The brains neurons cluster into work groups called neural networks 0 The Spinal cord is a 2 way info highway connecting btwn the peripheral nervous system and the brain 0 Ascending neural bers send up sensory info Descending ones send back motor control info 0 The neural pathways governing our re exes our automatic responses to stimuli illustrate spines work 0 Sensory lnter Motor The Endocrine System 0 The body s slow chemical communication system a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream that affect other tissues 0 Some hormones chemically identical to neurotransmitters Both nervous amp endocrine system produce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere Nervous system quick endocrine system slow but lasting Adrenal Glands a pair of glands right above the kidneys that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine Helps arouse the body in times of stress o Pituitary Gland most in uential gland Located in the core of the brain pea size Under the in uence of the hypothalamus it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands Releases GH oxytocin MASTER GLAND o In charge of sex glands and their hormones Adrenal glands amp cortisol etc o BRAINPituitaryOther glandshormonesBODY and BRAIN The Brain 0 The brain selfre ectively analyzes the brain 0 The mind is what the brain does The Tools of Discovery Having our Head Examined Early clinical observations by physicians and others revealed some brain mind connections Lesion tissue destruction A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 0 Today scientists can instead electrically chemically or magnetically stimulate various parts of the brain and note the effect Electroencephalogram EEG an ampli ed recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain s surface These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp No direct access to the brain Positron Emission Tomography Scan PET a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task 0 active neuronsgucose hogs Magnetic Resonance Imaging a technique that uses magnetic elds and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue Shows brain anatomy Aligns the spinning atoms of brain molecules 0 Functional MRI fMRI a technique revealing blood ow and therefore brain activity by comparing successful MRI scans fMRI scans show brain function 0 Reveals function and structure Older Brain Structures The Brainstem Oldest and innermost region Begins where the spinal cord swells slightly after entering the skull Contains the pons and medulla o Slight swelling is the Medulla control of HEARTBEAT AND BREATHING The Thalamus Sits atop the brainstem Pair of egg shaped structures that act as brain s SENSORY SWITCHBOARD Receives info from all senses except smell and routes it to higher brain regions that deal with seeing hearing tasting and touching Also receives some higher brain replies which it then directs to medulla and cerebellum The Reticular Formation 0 Inside the brainstem between your ears Fingershaped network of neurons that extends form the spinal cord right up through the thalamus Some of the spinal cords sensory input ows through the reticular formation which lters incoming stimuli and relays important info to other brain areas 0 Enables AROUSAL The Cerebellum o Extends from the rear of the brainstem The quotLittle brainquot Enables nonverbal learning and memory helps judge time modulate emotions discriminate sounds and textures COORDINATES VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT ALL of these are older brain functions so they occur without any conscious effort Our brain processes most info outside of our awareness The Limbic System 0 Between the newest and oldest regions of the brain lies the Limbic System 0 Contains amygdala hypothalamus hippocampus Hippocampus Processes conscious memories lf injured you d lose ability to form new memories of facts and events MEMORY The Amygdala 2 lima bean sized neural clusters 0 Related to AGGRESSION and FEAR Emotion The Hypothalamus 0 Below the thalamus important link governing bodily maintenance 0 Some neural clusters in it in uence HUNGER other in uence THIRST BODY TEMP and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Secretes HORMONES linked to emotion and reward o The Hormones trigger the master gland pituitary o Helps govern endocrine system The Cerebral Cortex o Newer neural networks within the cerebrum the hemispheres that contribute to 85 of brains weight form specialized work teams that enable our perceiving thinking and speaking The cerebral hemispheres come as a pair Cerebral cortex covers those hemispheres as a think surface layer of interconnected neural cells 0 Brans thinking crown ultimate CONTROL and INFO PROCESSING CENTER 0 As we move up ladder of life cerebral cortex expands tight genetic controls relax and the organisms adaptability increases Structure of the Cortex Glial Cells cells in the nervous system that support nourish and protect neurons they may also play a role in learning and thinking 0 Neurons cannot feed or sheathe themselves so they have to have workers glial cells They provide nutrients and insulating myelin guide neural connections and mop up ions and neurotransmitters 0 Can also play a role in learning and thinking They can quotchatquot with other neurons so they can participate in info transmission and memory 0 Each hemisphere s cortex divided into 4 lobes separated by ssues or folds o Frontal lobes behind yourforehead involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements o Parietal Lobes portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and towards the rear receives sensory input for touch and body position 0 Occipital Lobes lies at the back of the head includes areas that receive info from the visual elds 0 Temporal Lobes lies above the ears includes the auditory areas each receiving info primarily from the opposite ear Functions of the Cortex Motor Functions 0 Motor Cortex discovered area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements 0 Mapping the Motor Cortex Precise control movements ngers mouth occupy greatest amount of cortical space Brain Computer Interfaces 0 Trials of cognitive neural prosthetics are under way for paralysis or amputation victims Sensory Functions Sensory Cortex receives info from the skin sense and form the movement of body parts At the front of the parietal lobes The more sensitive the body region the larger the sensory cortex area devoted to it Association Areas 0 Higher mental functions 0 Areas of the cerebral cortex that aren t involved in primary motor or sensory functions rather they re involved in higher mental functions such as learning remembering thinking and speaking Found in all 4 lobes of the brain 0 Frontalenable judgment planning and processing of new memories Damage to frontal lobe could result in change in personality inability to plan ahead less inhibited moral judgments unrestrained o Parietal enable mathematical and spatial reasoning 0 Right temporal Lobe enables us to recognize faces Wouldn t be able to identify Lady Gaga or your grandmother The Brain s Plasticity Our genes are sculpted by our genes and experiences Plasticity ability to modify itself after damage 0 Brain damage facts 0 Severed neurons do not regenerate 0 Some brain functions seem preassigned to speci c areas 0 Some neural tissue can reorganize in response to damage Different areas of the brain or sides of the brain can overcompensate o Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons Our Divided Brain Splitting the Brain 0 Corpus Callosum the large band of neural bers connecting the 2 brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them 0 Split Brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains 2 hemispheres by cutting the bers in the corpus callosum connecting them 0 Split brain surgery leaves people with 2 separate minds Both hemispheres can comprehend and follow an instruction to copy simultaneously different gures with the left and right hands RightLeft Differences in the Intact Brain o Perceptual tasks in the right hemisphere Brain waves blood ow and glucose consumption reveal this 0 Right hemisphere excels in making inferences o Helps us modulate our speech to make meaning clear and helps orchestrate our sense of self
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