Week 1 Psych
Week 1 Psych PSYC 101 - 001
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PSYC 450 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Spitzer on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 - 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Michelle Maria Kitchen (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Psychology 101 Week 1 August 24th 2015 History Perspective of Psychology 0 Psychology study of the brain minds behavior The science of behavior and mental processes 0 Early part of psychology was not about doing experiments Most of science was sitting around and thinking Many early psychologists just sat around thinking and then came up with their theories without any experimentation o Wilhelm Wundt first psychology lab in Leipzig Germany in 1879 study of conscious expe ence 0 William James Principles of Psychology in 1890 Functionalist o Sigmund Freud Interpretation of Dreams in 1900 Role of the unconscious 0 Most of his stuff does not hold up today 0 Probably one of the most influential psychologist 0 John B Watson Psychology should only study observable behavior Behaviorism in the early 19005 0 One of the most famous psychologist 0 From Traveler s Rest South Carolina 0 Antidiscrimination advocate o BF Skinner Behaviorist He believed the environment completely controls us 19505 0 He relied on results and data 0 Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Humanism in the 19505 0 Humanism humans are unique free rational beings with potential for personal growth 0 Rise of applied psychology WWII Psychology really came into play after WWII due to PTSD and other mentalpsychology issues 0 Modern perspectives Evolutionary and Positive Psychology Historical Firsts o Margart Floy Washburn first woman PhD in psychology in 1894 0 Mary Calkins did everything for the PhD but Harvard would not give her the degree 0 Gilbert Jones 1901 and Inez Prosser 1933 first African American male and female PhDs in psychology Historical Issues 0 Stability vs Change Are people stable in terms of traits IQ etc Do they stay in a stable adulthood or do they change 0 We like to think we change but in terms of personality we are stable You can try to work on your traits but you will always have those traits shy messy etc o Functionalism vs Structuralism o Rationality vs Irrationality Are we being rational 0 Nature vs Nurture Genes and environment Genes aren t permanent 0 John Locke quottabula rasa blank slate He believed we were completely at the mercy of our environment o Descartes some ideas are innate 0 Darwin innate traits allow organisms to survive and reproduce Applied Psychology Fields 0 Clinical Psychology studies assesses and treats people with psychology disorders They could also research this 0 They cannot prescribe medicines 0 Has a PhD 0 Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders 0 Educational Psychology about how people learn Achievement tests classroom environment education of mentally disabled dyslexia 0 Counseling Psychology deals with nondeviant behavior and relationships such as family marriage career counseling 0 Does not have a PhD 0 ndustrialOrganizational Psychology training and motivation of workers job satisfaction and good work relations August 26th 2015 Research Methods in Psychology The Scientific Method 0 Theory explanation that organizes and predicts observations 0 Hypothesis specific testable prediction 0 Operational definition the procedures used in the research 0 Replication repeating a study to see if the original findings generalize to other participants and situations 0 psychology is a science Research Strategies 0 Description 0 Case Study Study of one individual or several individuals in depth in hopes of revealing universal principles I Examples study of serious brain injury HM Freud s theory of personality Piaget and child development I Limitations any given individual can be atypical therefore it becomes easy to make false conclusions 0 Survey must use a representative random sample I Examples dating practices political polls drug surveys I Limitations sampling errors response rate I The best basis for generalizing is not from the exceptional cases at the extremes but from a representative sample of cases 0 Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without direct intervention with subjects 0 Examples Jane Goodall and chimps child interactions at playgrounds pace of life Levine and Norenzayan 1999 August 28th 2015 0 Correlation statistic used for descriptive or pseudoexperiment studies 0 Statistical measure of the extent to which two factors predict each other how strongly they are related I Ex Intelligence and achievement IQ and drug use Extraversion and risk taking 0 Why do we use correlation I When experimentation is unethical I When experimentation is impossible or too difficult expensive slow hard to collect data I When you re looking at traits that cannot be controlled 0 Limitation Does correlation mean causation 0 Ex Cigarette smoking gt anxiety anxiety gt cigarette smoking 0 Experimentation an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process dependent variable 0 Basic Terms I Experimental condition exposes participants to experimental treatment I Control Condition serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of treatment I Random assignment I Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied I Dependent Variable the experimental factor that is being measured the variable that may change in response to manipulation of independent variables 0 Be careful of extraneous variables compounds lurking
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