Charpter 1 & 2 Notes
Charpter 1 & 2 Notes POL 106
Popular in U.S. Goverment & Civic Practice
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Pacheco -Vargas on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL 106 at Illinois State University taught by Anthony Nigliaccio in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 241 views. For similar materials see U.S. Goverment & Civic Practice in Political Science at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Politics 106 Keeping the Republic Chapter 1 What is Politics V Politics who gets what when and how a process of determining how power and resources are distributed in a society without recourse to violence 0 Politics arranges our lives into some kind of social order V Power the ability to get others to do what you want 0 The way power is managed must be legitimate or there will be violence Politics and Government V Government a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people 0 Authority the power that people recognize as legitimate V Rules directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity 0 The how of who gets what and how V Institutions organizations in which government power is exercised o The where of the political struggle Politics and Economics V Economics the production and distribution of a society s material resources and services V Capitalism market determines production distribution and price decisions V Socialist economy the state determines production distribution and price decisions property is government owned Authoritarian Systems In authoritarian systems the state holds all power V Monarchy government power vested in a king or queen Saudi Arabia V Theocracy government claims to draw its power from divine or religious authority Iran V Fascist government policy is made for the ultimate glory of the state Nazi Germany V Oligarchy rule by a small group of elites postSoviet Russia V Totalitarian government exercises absolute control over every aspect of life North Korea NonAuthoritarian Systems V Anarchy the absence of government and laws 0 In such a system no one has true freedom because your rights can be usurped by anyone physically stronger than you or by anyone with a weapon V Democracy government that vests power in the people based on popular sovereignty 0 Popular sovereignty the concept that the citizens are the ultimate source of political power Theories of Democracy V Elite democracy limits the citizens role to choosing among competing leaders V Pluralist democracy citizen membership in groups is the key to political power V Participatory democracy citizens should actively and directly control all aspects of their lives and participate in all aspects of lawmaking The Role of the People V In authoritarian systems individuals are subjects of their state government 0 They are obliged to submit to a government authority against which they have no rights V In democratic systems individuals are citizens 0 They are members of a political community having both rights and responsibilities Social Contract Theory V Social contract theory society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others V John Locke legitimate government requires that people consent to it and if government breaks contract people may form a new one V Thomas Hobbes government did not exist due to divine right instead people agree to be governed for their own protection Democracy in America V James Madison feared pure democracy because people may create tac ons o Factions groups that might pursue only their selfinterest V Instead he preferred a republic 0 Republic a government in which decisions are made through representatives of the pe0ple Citizenship in America today Two Views Madison s view Republican virtue Human nature is to be self interested individual participation in government should be limited and too much democracy is a bad thing Faith in the citizen s ability to act virtuously not just for his or her own good but for the common good as well Politics 106 Keeping the Republic Chapter 2 Who are we V The United States is incredibly diverse and constantly changing V Population trends include rising percentages of senior citizens ethnic minorities immigrants and nonEnglish speakers in the American population V These trends affect our political culture Where do we come from V You are an American citizen if you are Born in the United States whether or not parents are citizens Born to American parents abroad V Immigrants citizens or subjects of other countries who move to another country to live or work V Naturalization the legal process of acquiring citizenship for someone who has not acquired it by birth The Naturalization Process V The legal process to become a citizen 0 Applicants must pass an English and a civics test 0 For the civics test there is a study guide of 100 questions on US history and politics 0 Applicants are given ten random questions from this guide and must get six correct to pass NonImmigrants V Those seeking asylum protection or sanctuary especially from political persecution o Refugees individuals who flee an area or a country because of persecution on the basis of race nationality religion group membership or political opinion 0 Nonpermanent resident students workers visitors V Undocumented immigrants are those who avoid US Citizenship and Immigration Services regulations 0 Often obey laws pay taxes but strain some states resources US Immigration Policy V We control immigration for numerous reasons 0 including a preference for admitting only those able to help the United States 0 We have also historically limited the immigration of some groups V Immigration policy today is controlled by the Department of Homeland Security DHS o Post September 11 security worries 0 Illegal immigration through Mexican border V Many states are independently adopting strict immigration laws including an extremely controversial one in Arizona What we Believe the Ideas that Unite Us V Political culture the broad patterns of ideas beliefs and values about citizens and government held by the citizens of a country 0 Values central ideas principles or standards that most people agree are important 0 We often take our political culture for granted or aren t aware of it o Often our values are shared and handed down Faith in Rules V Most Americans believe we should focus on fair rules and processes rather than guaranteeing results V everyone is treated equally and fairly with no promise of particular outcomes V assuring outcomes are fair Faith in Individuals V Individualism is the belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals V Individuals not government are responsible for their own wellbeing V Contrasts with a collectivist point of view which gives government some responsibility for individual welfare Core American Values V representative democracy is a fair way to make decisions It decides what happens V procedural view that no unfair restrictions will be placed on you No legal barrier will stop you but the rules V Americans believe in equality of treatment o It is a core AMERICAN value but not applicable to everyone What we Believe the Ideas that Divide Us V Ideologies sets of beliefs about politics and society that help people make sense of their world V Conservatives people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change V Liberals people who generally favor government action and view change as progress Ideological Dimensions V The economic dimension 0 Conservatives prefer little government involvement in economy 0 Liberals see a positive government role V The social order dimension 0 Economic security has led Americans to become more concerned with qualityofIife and moral issues 0 Division over limited versus more active government control of individual lives The Citizens and American Political Beliefs V The United States has grown more democratic since Madison s time V More groups may vote and assert political rights V Voter participation is fairly low however V And many argue that American political culture has taken on a more divisive less civil tone
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