Bio Anthropology Notes from August 25
Bio Anthropology Notes from August 25 ATY 253-01
Popular in Intro to Biological anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Scobee on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological anthropology in Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
Reviews for Bio Anthropology Notes from August 25
I'm a really bad notetaker and the opportunity to connect with a student who can provide this help is amazing. Thank you so much StudySoup, I will be back!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/31/15
825 How does inheritance work resemble parents but still look unique What is DNA and what does it do How do we know people are evolving Natural Selection can t see into the future and only acts on heritable variation Natural selection acts on individuals but populations evolve It s not the only force that generates change It s not foolproof Organisms are not trying to adapt Limitations to Darwin s theory 0 The laws of inheritance are for the most part unknown 0 Where does variation ultimately come from o What is maladaptive traits o How is variation maintained Blending inheritance Discovery of inheritance o Gregor Mendel 18221884 0 A monk living in Brno modern Czech Republic 0 Provided a mechanism for inheritance o Bred and crosspollinated pea plants Mendel s pea experiment 0 F0 yellow parent yellow parent F1 yellow offspring F0 Green parent green parent F1 green offspring Traits didn t blend Inheritance is determined by physical units that are passed down unchanged Offspring get one unit from each parent for each trait Trait may not show up but can still be passed on Results were forgotten for 40 years OOOOOOOO After Mendel o Organisms are made of cells 0 organisms that lack a nucleus 0 organisms with multiple cells and a cell nucleus 0 Two types of cells Somatic body cells Gametes sex cells 0 All cell nuclei have chromosomes 0 Replicated during cell division vChromosomes Humans have 46 Paired diploid One from mom one from dad Homologous pairs 23 Autosomes encode all physical biological traits Sex chromosomes 0 Female XX 0 Male XY Karyotype complete set of chromosomes 000000 0 Cell division Mitosis 0 New cells have all chromosomes diploid o Exact copies created 0 Somatic cells Cell division Meiosis o All new cells have only one copy of each chromosome Haploid 0 Sex cells 0 Haploid sperm haploid egg diploid Zygote Genes and chromosomes 0 Thomas Hunt Morgan 18661945 0 Genes are on chromosomes One copy of each chromosome from each parent Meiosis creates gametes with only one of each pair of chromosomes Mendelian genetics variant of a gene eye color two copies of the same allele different alleles combination of alleles that an individual carries physical expression of genotype allele always expressed if present OOOOOO o allele only expressed if dominant allele is absent 0 The same method can be used to examine any number of traits More on genes and chromosomes 0 Recombination of chromosomes during meiosis over 8 million possibilities o Crossing over during meiosis o Translocation Limitations to Darwin s theory 0 The law of inheritance are for the most part unknown each gamete only gets one copy of a gene different traits are inherited independently of each other only one allele is expressed in the phenotype 0 Where does variation ultimately come from o Recombination crossing over 0 Mutations o How is variation maintained 0 Traits do not blend 0 Recombination crossing over mutations The discover of DNA 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 1953 Rosalind Franklin Francis Crick and James Watson 0 double helix looks like what does DNA do 0 Library for creating and maintaining an organism o The library can make copies of itself 0 Each book carries the specific instructions for making proteins 0 DNA s functions are permitted by its structure DNA structure 0 legs are sugar and phosphate molecules 0 rungs are paired nitrogen bases phosphate sugar nitrogen base Nucleotide bases adenine A thymine T guanine G cytosine C same for all life on earth A and T go together C and G go together complementary strand 000 DNA replication 0 Every time a new cell is created 0 Growth and development 0 Cell replacement Occurs in the cell nucleus ldentical copies are made Step 1 DNA unzips Step 2 complementary bases match up Result two DNA strands OOOOO Making Proteins 0 DNA holds the books for creating proteins 0 responsible for physical characteristics 0 Collagen o Keratin o regulates chemical reactions 0 Proteins are made of amino acids 0 Amino acids are associated with a threebase code 0 20 total amino acids 0 transcription 0 The body needs a protein 0 Check out book segment of DNA by unzipping it in nucleus 0 Complementary bases match up to unzipped segment sections of DNA that codes for proteins translation 0 Copied DNA segment moves outside the nucleus 0 Codons match up to exposed segment 0 Amino acids are bound together like a train O 0 Types of genes 0 responsible for physical characteristics 0 The structural genes are the for fungi mice humans etc o turns genes on and off 0 Homeotic Hox genes 0 Guide the development of an organism s body 0 Marfan syndrome Not all DNA is made up of genes Of 3 billion bases only 25 of genome is coding The rest is either silent or influences how genes are expressed complete set of genes in an individual cell Humans 25000 genes Human genome project two or more alleles for genetic trait Blood type gene has three alleles A B O A and B alleles are codominant Possible phenotypes A B AB or 0 blood OOOOOOOOOO Monogenetic traits one gene one protein Polygenic traits many genes on protein Pleiotropy one gene many proteins Polygenic traits and pleiotropy many genes many proteins Gene expression is even more complex Environment can determine if or when genes are turned on or off genetic control by factors other than an individual s DNA sequences Sometimes your genes get tagged and these tags can be inherited proportion of a trait s variation that is genetic height 60 genetic weight 30 tooth size70 some addictions 60 000000000
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'