Environmental Studies 3 Week 5
Environmental Studies 3 Week 5
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Helen Notetaker on Sunday May 4, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.
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Date Created: 05/04/14
ENV S 3 042914 A Clash of Cultures in America Today39s IDs Trading Zones Trading zones ended the isolation of the middle ages increased technological change all developing before the Europeans start coming to Americas Putting out system 0 System that gave raw materials like raw clothes to the commoners and they would finish them into blankets and clothes products that could be marketed o Manors Climate change 0 900s in Europe was a very cold wet period in central northern Europe 0 Later 1000s the climate warmed and dried so let to agricultural productivity I Population grew economy increased End of insularity 0 Climate change putting out system led to end of insularity Merchant culture 0 More capitalistic culture early 100011005 0 Merchants were taking products of putting out systems to sell them Venice Genoa o Earliest merchant cultures Netherlands 0 Also in the Netherlands they had merchant cultures Renaissance 0 Generally identify the period as Renaissance Goes back to Greco Roman times Emergence of civilization from middle ages Eurocentric term Means rebirth in French Things changed dramatically 1200s 1500s Scholars began to take texts of Greco Roman times in light of what they meant literally 0 Building of the time reflected changes Gothic architecture 0 Protection and security Greco Roman style 0 Buildings reflected the Greco Roman style of architecture 0 Philosophy architecture and art reflect this 0 Re ects secularism Secularism OOOOOOO 0 Separation of church and state 0 Reader Renaissance secular period appeared life was no longer seen as preparation of the after life present life became exciting exploration and discovery became popular o European manors were producing more than they can consume Marco Polo o Explorations of Marco Polo o He was a merchant who traveled all the way to China in the 1270s 0 Looked at Chinese culture o Brought the information back to Italy I About jewels spices and silk European merchants were the first to pioneer trade between Europe and Asia I Eurasian world was connected I Transference of Guns Germs and Steel Caravan routes o Camel trains that went across from Constantinople all the way to China o Expanded the over land trade o Expanded ocean going trade Hanseatic zone o Mercantile organization of towns along the North Sea going towards the Baltic Sea 0 Dealt with issues of foreign trade I Protection shipping etc o Started in 1358 and by 1370 there were full agreements in those areas Middle Europe zone 0 More organization of trade 0 Developed in Europe 0 Had big gathering areas Paris London etc I Where goods can be brought and shipped to distant places 0 Europe was being further organized into trading areas Italian zone 0 Developed out of all the change that were happening in Europe 0 Black Death 1300 European population was 75 million 1350 52 million 1400 44 million Bubonic plague 0 1330s came from Asia to Europe Spread throughout virtually all of Europe Origins were western central Asia Carried on Caravan routes to Europe Bacterial infection not a virus I Could be treated with antibiotics O O O O o Took a while for people to realize it o Killed 13 of the European population East Westtransference o Traveled on this axis 0 Give and takes Rat eas o On ships 0 Made their way from China to Black Sea region o First to southern Europe 0 Most prominent factor o When bitten results in high fever buboes etc Buboes o Turn black get bloody and spread to other parts of the body and spread to someone else o Disfigure the body and eventually kill you 0 Reason why it39s called the Black Plague Pneumonic plague o Was like ammonia spread through saliva 0 Killed people much faster than bubonic plague 0 Associated epidemiologically with bubonic plague Bleedingleecheshot oil immersion o Ways to treat it was to make people bleed o Leeches would suck out the poison o Boil people in hot oil Famines o There was no one left to plant crops 0 Robbers reeking crops Pandemic 0 A widespread devastating disease 0 Have never been seen anywhere else o Improved during 1500s due to weather o Increased trade brought the plague Gunpowder 1300s technological invention of gunpowder developed in China as early as 800s AD for fireworks made its way on the East West axis huge technological advantage to the Europeans Saltpeter potassium nitrate 0 Chinese mixed three ingredients o Saltpeter 75 sulfur 10 and charcoal 15 Black Saracen Powder o Another name for gunpowder Sulfur charcoal Gunmetal o Europeans were far more advanced in making metals 0 So they developed a combination of metals Coppertinzinc 0 Mix these three to make gunmetal o Iron to make the balls Autocatalytic process o Europeans were more advanced in metal technology but didn39t have gunpowder o Prior inventions building on each other to make more advanced technology o Technology that spread rapidly throughout Europe Gunhild ballista blunderbuss musket harquebus o Different names given to guns In Northern Europe it was called gunhild in Germany 1330s Or ballista in French In England blunderbuss or musket Revolutionized warfare I Noise of the gun were enough to get peoples attention 0 Spanish called it harquebus Germs Iron and Harquebuses 0 Diamond doesn39t talk a lot about Guns Escopetas 0 Mid 1500s 0 Spanish guns 0 O O O Toscanelli More about journey about Columbus than Toscanelli Toscanelli was the mapmaker of Columbus born in Italy 13971482 inspired Columbus to sail west and reach the orient Far East China monarchs of European countries were anxious to get involved to develop trade routes during period of Renaissance 1450s people started to look for new ways to get to Asia through the ocean Christopher Columbus 0 14511506 o An Italian who was interested in seafaring o Toscanelli gave him his map and Columbus decided to sail to Asia Portugal o Leading the way to develop ways to get to Asia 0 Columbus went to Portugal to raise funding University of Padua o Toscanelli s father had a in uential role 0 Toscanelli enrolled in this university in the early 1400s I Trained to become a doctor o Most advanced university in the world Cosmography 0 Means description of the world o Toscanelli with his knowledge of science and math made many advances Ptolemy Greek Egyptian mathematician in 7th century AD Argued that the world was a sphere Earth orbiting the sun Toscanelli broadened this view in early mid 1400s I Greatly underestimated the size of the planet I Made a map of the spherical earth Ferdinand and Isabella o Columbus went to Spanish monarchs to raise funding when Portuguese rejected him Spanish nationalism o Combined their countries to create Spain o Developed around the idea of Roman Catholicism Spanish Inquisition o When Columbus arrived at Spain o Began in 1478 to get rid of Muslims and Iews expelled them The strappado o Powerful message of social control o Way to kill Muslims and ews o Human sacrifice o Violation of human rights Bahamas o Columbus and his crew came unto this territory on accident I They believed that they discovered the Indies o Found native America o First voyage 4 voyages of Columbus o Had 3 more voyages after reaching Bahamas o Columbus died without any recognition 0 Toscanelli was dead by this time 10 years dead when Columbus discovered America I His map was what brought Columbus to the Americas o Cortes and the Aztecs 15191521 o Pizarro and the Incas 15321533 I Cover of Guns Germs and Steel OOOO Today39s Music Led Zeppelin s Kashmir 1977
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