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Bio Anthropology Notes August 20 & 25

by: Vanessa Scobee

Bio Anthropology Notes August 20 & 25 ATY 253-01

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Greensboro > Science > ATY 253-01 > Bio Anthropology Notes August 20 25
Vanessa Scobee
GPA 4.0
Intro to Biological anthropology
Charles P. Egeland

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About this Document

Evolution, Darwin, and DNA.
Intro to Biological anthropology
Charles P. Egeland
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Scobee on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological anthropology in Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 08/31/15
Bio Anthropology 820 What is science and how does it work What is evolution really How did Darwin come up with his ideas What is Natural Selection and how does it work The Scientific method in action 1846 General Hospital Vienna Ignaz Semmelweis Problem Puerperal fever childbed fever A bacterial infection that killed many particularly postpartum mothers Step 1 Make observations of the natural world 0 So he collected data on death rates and noticed o In Maternity Ward 1 staffed by midwives there were some deaths 0 However in Maternity Ward 2 staffed by male doctors there were5x as many deaths Step 2 Generate hypotheses o Birthing position 0 Testable prediction Giving birth on the side would reduce mortality 0 Null hypothesis birthing position makes no difference in death rates Step 3 Test hypothesis 0 Giving birth on the side reduces deaths from childbed fever 0 Recommended that women BOTH ward give birth on their side and gathered mortality data 0 No difference in mortality so reject the hypothesis So now what 0 One of his friends died from the same condition 0 SO anyone could suffer from childbed fever 0 His colleague was a pathologist who conducted autopsies something midwives didn t do Step 2b generate more hypotheses o Cadaverous particles 0 Testable prediction Getting rid of these particles would reduce mortality 0 Null hypothesis getting rid of the particles make no difference in death rates Step 3b test hypothesis 0 Removing cadaverous particles from wards reduces death from childbed fever 0 Recommended that medical staff wash their hands and instrument and then gathers mortality data 0 Mortality rates dropped across the board hypothesis supportednot rejected But Lots of pushback from other doctors Results were never replicated Semmelweis was not the most tactful person Died in an asylum in 1865 of sepsis Germ theory and disinfectant thus only came much later about 50 years More about on the nature of science Science is not practiced in a vacuum lts practiced by people within social contexts Data repeatable observations etc are only part of the story The evolution of evolution 0 characteristics that allows an organism to survive and reproduce 0 Natural Section 0 Individuals with adaptive characteristics have more kids Adaptive characteristics increase in frequency from generation generation 0 Descent with modification change overtime evolution 17quot 19th Century Europeans took two things for granted 0 Organisms were unchanging and ordering in a chain 0 The world was not very old about 6000 years old 0 Archbishop James Ussher 15811656 The age of exploration as its peak Contact with new at least to Europeans people plants and animals Worlds as an expression of God s thoughts Science as a religious pursuit Natural Theology Study of earth s history and compositions Changes in the earth require a long time Study of past lifeforms Species are not eternal Classification of living things Clear lines between individuals and between species became blurred Study of population characteristics Populations do not grow indefinitely The context of Darwin 17 19th century JeanBaptiste Lamarck 17441829 1st explicit evolutionist Gradation of species towards perfection Lamarckian evolution External pressure produces a need adaption Response use or disuse of organscapacities Enlargesstrengthens organs Acquires characteristics are heritable Evolution The 17th and 19th century Europeans took two things for granted Species were unchanging and ordering in a chain 0 Are they really 0 The world was not very old 6000 years old o It must be much much older 00000 0 Charles Darwin 18091882 0 1859 On the Origin of Species o 1871 The Descent of Man o Convinced that species change over time 0 Proposed a mechanism for change 1838 Natural selection 0 DanVin did not invent evolution just a mechanism for how it could occur Natural Selection 0 The struggle for existence Population should grow indefinitely However population size are limited More offspring are created than the environment can support Not all offspring will survive they must compete for limited resources Populations are naturally variable Some of this variation is heritable Only some individuals will live long enough to reproduce Some individuals will have characteristics that allow them to survive to reproduce Advantageous characteristics will be passed on Given enough time a species will look different than it did in the past Evolution OOOOOO 825 How does inheritance work resemble parents but still look unique What is DNA and what does it do How do we know people are evolving Natural Selection can t see into the future and only acts on heritable variation Natural selection acts on individuals but populations evolve It s not the only force that generates change It s not foolproof Organisms are not trying to adapt Limitations to Darwin s theory 0 The laws of inheritance are for the most part unknown 0 Where does variation ultimately come from o What is maladaptive traits o How is variation maintained Blending inheritance Discovery of inheritance o Gregor Mendel 18221884 0 A monk living in Brno modern Czech Republic 0 Provided a mechanism for inheritance o Bred and crosspollinated pea plants Mendel s pea experiment 0 F0 yellow parent yellow parent F1 yellow offspring F0 Green parent green parent F1 green offspring Traits didn t blend Inheritance is determined by physical units that are passed down unchanged Offspring get one unit from each parent for each trait Trait may not show up but can still be passed on Results were forgotten for 40 years OOOOOOOO After Mendel o Organisms are made of cells 0 organisms that lack a nucleus 0 organisms with multiple cells and a cell nucleus 0 Two types of cells Somatic body cells Gametes sex cells 0 All cell nuclei have chromosomes 0 Replicated during cell division vChromosomes Humans have 46 Paired diploid One from mom one from dad Homologous pairs 23 Autosomes encode all physical biological traits Sex chromosomes 0 Female XX 0 Male XY Karyotype complete set of chromosomes 000000 0 Cell division Mitosis 0 New cells have all chromosomes diploid o Exact copies created 0 Somatic cells Cell division Meiosis o All new cells have only one copy of each chromosome Haploid 0 Sex cells 0 Haploid sperm haploid egg diploid Zygote Genes and chromosomes 0 Thomas Hunt Morgan 18661945 0 Genes are on chromosomes One copy of each chromosome from each parent Meiosis creates gametes with only one of each pair of chromosomes Mendelian genetics variant of a gene eye color two copies of the same allele different alleles combination of alleles that an individual carries physical expression of genotype allele always expressed if present OOOOOO o allele only expressed if dominant allele is absent 0 The same method can be used to examine any number of traits More on genes and chromosomes 0 Recombination of chromosomes during meiosis over 8 million possibilities o Crossing over during meiosis o Translocation Limitations to Darwin s theory 0 The law of inheritance are for the most part unknown each gamete only gets one copy of a gene different traits are inherited independently of each other only one allele is expressed in the phenotype 0 Where does variation ultimately come from o Recombination crossing over 0 Mutations o How is variation maintained 0 Traits do not blend 0 Recombination crossing over mutations The discover of DNA 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 1953 Rosalind Franklin Francis Crick and James Watson 0 double helix looks like what does DNA do 0 Library for creating and maintaining an organism o The library can make copies of itself 0 Each book carries the specific instructions for making proteins 0 DNA s functions are permitted by its structure DNA structure 0 legs are sugar and phosphate molecules 0 rungs are paired nitrogen bases phosphate sugar nitrogen base Nucleotide bases adenine A thymine T guanine G cytosine C same for all life on earth A and T go together C and G go together complementary strand 000 DNA replication 0 Every time a new cell is created 0 Growth and development 0 Cell replacement Occurs in the cell nucleus ldentical copies are made Step 1 DNA unzips Step 2 complementary bases match up Result two DNA strands OOOOO Making Proteins 0 DNA holds the books for creating proteins 0 responsible for physical characteristics 0 Collagen o Keratin o regulates chemical reactions 0 Proteins are made of amino acids 0 Amino acids are associated with a threebase code 0 20 total amino acids 0 transcription 0 The body needs a protein 0 Check out book segment of DNA by unzipping it in nucleus 0 Complementary bases match up to unzipped segment sections of DNA that codes for proteins translation 0 Copied DNA segment moves outside the nucleus 0 Codons match up to exposed segment 0 Amino acids are bound together like a train O 0 Types of genes 0 responsible for physical characteristics 0 The structural genes are the for fungi mice humans etc o turns genes on and off 0 Homeotic Hox genes 0 Guide the development of an organism s body 0 Marfan syndrome Not all DNA is made up of genes Of 3 billion bases only 25 of genome is coding The rest is either silent or influences how genes are expressed complete set of genes in an individual cell Humans 25000 genes Human genome project two or more alleles for genetic trait Blood type gene has three alleles A B O A and B alleles are codominant Possible phenotypes A B AB or 0 blood OOOOOOOOOO Monogenetic traits one gene one protein Polygenic traits many genes on protein Pleiotropy one gene many proteins Polygenic traits and pleiotropy many genes many proteins Gene expression is even more complex Environment can determine if or when genes are turned on or off genetic control by factors other than an individual s DNA sequences Sometimes your genes get tagged and these tags can be inherited proportion of a trait s variation that is genetic height 60 genetic weight 30 tooth size70 some addictions 60 000000000


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