Two Weeks of Notes
Two Weeks of Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Walton on Monday August 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/15
Social Psychology 223 Chapter One What is Social Psychology 0 SOCi l Psychology Attempts to understand and explain how the thoughts feelings and behaviors of individuals are in uenced by the actual imagined or implied presence of others Gordon Allport I Scientific Method includes systematic observation description and measurement 0 Hallmark of social psychology is the experimental study 0 Central Phenomenon social psychologists study how people are in uenced by the situations in which they are in and how they exert in uence on each other 0 ngton and Cohen study to illustrate social context 0 Some students were told how typical it is that most students go through periods of social stress and uncertainty during freshman year control group received different information 0 For African American students this manipulation affected GPA positively over four years of high school 0 Another Experiment I Resident assistants at Stanford chose a group of students who were either especially cooperative or competitive I They were invited to play a game in a psychology experiment I Wall Street Game or Community Game Wall Street less cooperative since a competitive game Community both groups were similar 0 Good Samaritan Study Seminary students had a choice of studyspeech he or she had to give someone who was hurt was on the student s way to give speech time pressure decided who was more or less likely to stop and help hurt person 0 Social Psychology Differs from Common Sense 0 Many con icting folklore sayings I Birds of feathers ock together vs Opposites attract I Absence makes the heart grow fonder vs Out of sight out of mind I Too many cooks spoil the stew vs Many hands make work light 0 Unlike common sense social psychology uses the scientific method 0 Some research confirms common sense but some findings are counterintuitive Social psychology also reveals that an answer depends on a variety of factors 0 Historv of Social Psvchologv 0 Birth and Infancy 1880 s1920 s I First social psychology experiment I First textbooks 0 First socpsych experiment 1887 Triplett 0 Found that bicyclists rode faster when with a group rather than be oneself 0 Lab children winding up fishing reels alone vs in groups 0 Social Facilitation Individuals do better when in the presence of other individuals I Ringleman s Experiment 1880 s I Found that easy tasks pulling a rope being done were worse when pulling with others than when alone 0 Social Loa ng Performing worse with others since you re with others who can do the majority of the work I First Textbooks with SocPsv in Title I William McDougall 1908 0 Edward Ross 1908 0 Floyd Allport 1924 best established as a discipline in socpsy I A call to Action 1930 s1950 s I Hitler strongest in uence on social psychology 0 Led to questions about prejudice violence and obedience 0 Social psychologists ed from Europe to United States creating a critical mass of social psychologists 0 Society for Psychological Study of Social Issues formed 1936 Gordon Allport I Kurt Lewin founding father of modern experimental social psychology 0 Emigrated from Germany and made several research and theoretical contributions 0 Field Theory BfPE I B behaviorf functionP personE environment I B is a function of P and E 0 Applications of Social Psychology no research without action no action without research 0 Leadership and group studies 0 Students Festinger Kelley Schachter Thibaut I Muzafer Sherif 0 Examined in uences of groups on members 0 Demonstrated it s possible to study complex social processes conformity in scientific way I 1950 s Theorv Development 0Warrelated research generated applied research 0 College growth provided jobs for social psychologists and large student populations to study 0 Government and businesses needed input from Social Psychologists 0 W11 efforts I 1960 s and 1970 s Con dence 0 Expansion productivity and enthusiasm 0 New topics selfperceptions helping behavior aggression and attraction 0 Crisis and Debate lab experimentation was being questioned I Milgram Studies Ethics being questioned Shock machine experiment Stanford Experiment Prison experiment study 1970 s1990 s Pluralism Methods hot and cold perspectives 0 Hot emotion cold cognition Internationalcultural perspectives Social cognition New and Trendy Hotcold perspectives Automatic vs controllable processes Biological vs evolutionary processes Cultural perspectivesmulticultural research 0 Interdisciplinary Approaches O Behavioral economics 0 Embodied cognition 0 Embodied Cognition examines close links between our minds and the positioning and actions of our bodies 0 Guilt reduced by washing hands 0 Brain imaging technology 0 Internet 0 Virtual reality technology Chapter Two Doing Social Psychology Research 0 Research Methods O 0 Research begins with a question I Sources 1 Own experiences and observations of life 2 Reading about research already done 3 Theory Some research questions can be shaped into hypotheses I Testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events or variables I How is similarity in attitudes related to attraction 0 Two people will like each other more with similar attitudes Basic research goal is to increase understanding of human behavior often by testing hypotheses based on a theory Applied research goal is to find solutions for practical problems De ning and measuring variables I Conceptual variables variables in abstract general form I Operational variables the specific way a variable is measured or manipulated I Validity and reliability are important 0 Validity measuring what should be measured 0 Reliability consistency was of Research Process I Generate research question or hypothesis I Finding relevant past research and theory I Selecting a research method I Collecting data I Analyzing data I Reporting results Research Designs I Selfreport I Experiments I Observations I Archival research Goals can be description correlation or causation I Selfreports Interviews selfreport questionnaires paper or online telephone interview Samples convenience and representative random sample Advantages ease and gives access to people s beliefs feelings and past Disadvantages honesty incorrect interpretation memory prone to error correlations do not show causations Memory issues solutionreduce the time that elapses between the experience and the reporting of it 0 Intervalcontingent selfreports every interval 0 Signalcontingent selfreports cell phone beep O Eventcontingent selfreports survey at event I Observational studies Direct systematic observations about behavior can be conducted in either a lab setting or in a field natural setting Participant research observes while participating Advantages avoid faulty recollectionsbiases Disadvantages a person s knowing you are watching may affect behavior unnatural behavior in public Improvements interrater reliabilitv degree of agreement between trained observers about what occurred 0 Addition of technology recorders computers assessing eyetracking reaction time etc I Experiments Laboratory controlled situation Field everyday situations 0 Higher in external validity What is an experiment O A form of research that can determine causeandeffect relationships because I Experimenter has control over the conditions the events that occur manipulations I Participants are randomly assigned to conditions Random assignment placement of participants in experimental conditions based on chance e g ipping a coin 0 makes groups equivalent except exposure to independent variable 0 can conclude that any differences between groups on the dependent variable is due to the effects of the independent variable 0 NOT the same as random sample Variables 0 Independent the experimental factor that the researcher manipulates O Dependent the variable being measured that DEPENDS on the independent variable 0 Subject characteristics of participants in the experiment e g gender Which are preexisting and not manipulated Weaknesses of experiments 0 Many social phenomena cannot be studied experimentally 0 Experiments face several threats to internal validitv the degree to Which one can be certain that the independent variables caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables 0 Experiments also face problems With external validitv the degree to Which the results Will generalize to other people and situations Archival Research Archival research involves analyzing information and data collected previously by others 0 Examples government data diaries letters emails personal advertisements Particularly valuable for examining cultural and historical trends MetaAnalysis 0 Statistical procedure on combined data from several studies 0 Can draw stronger conclusions about tests and hypotheses Ethical issues in conducting research 0 Must be approved by the university s Institutional Review Board 0 Must acquire informed consent from participants 0 Must avoid physical or psychological harm 0 Must assure anonymity and confidentiality
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