week one notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Affra Mohamed on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2107k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Arnauk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
Biology week 1 notes Chapter 1 Life Celluar and Life Sciences Biology study of life Symbiosis mutualism exampe hummingbird takes nectar from ower and when it does it obtains glycolsis or glucose which gives ATP which helps create energy for the bird And the ower attracts the bird because the bird would spread nectar sexual reproduction myosis Scienti c method observations hypothesis predictions experiments or new observations theory Characteristics of life 0 Complexity spatial organization in the cell DNA Prokaryotes bacteria and archae and they have circuar chromosome structure Eukaryote multi cellular and single celled organisms Ex animals plant fungi and protists parasites Karyotes means condened chromosomes Viruses don39t t in any category because techniqually not alive 0 Ability to change in response to the environment by maintain homeostasis internal regulation based on positive and negative feedback 0 Acquire by food plants certain bacteria and for plants sunlight use energy and store energy 0 Growth and reproduction using myosis and mytosis 0 Capacity to evolve as a population Molecular biology CHNOPS carbon hydrogen nitrogen oxygen phosphorus and sulfur are important compound found in the body 80 of air is nitrogen and we need oxygen to make ATP Oxygen Glucose ATP CO2 Carbon is everywhere and we have lots of carbon and it makes up most of our moecuar framework 1St law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed can only change form 2nCI law of thermodynamics entropy disorder happens energy is required to create and maintain order If we build or make bonds entropy or energy is released This energy is released as heat Cell 0 The simplest selfreplicating entity that can exist as an independent organism Cells are diverse and do different functions Neurons and unfertile eggs are examples of simple cells Essential features of a cell o It can store information and send it DNA and RNA o It is bonded by plasma membrane some have cell membranes and some have cell walls o It can harness energy from the environment plants take energy from the sun photosynthesis breaking down chemical compounds 0 Store and transmit information via DNA which is the blueprint of all cells except sex cells 0 Protein and receptors turn on and off certain sections of the DNA Identical twins same DNA The Central Dogma DNA gets transcribed to RNA RNA gets translated to protein 0 Protein does everything for you Plasma membrane All cells have plasma membrane and some have cell walls Cytoplasm is the uid inside the cell Genetic information is in chromosomes Ribosomes package proteins Eukaryotic cells Membrane bond organelles have tiny functions with specializations Nucleus is membrane bond and stores genetic information Harness Energy 0 Energy comes from 2 sources Sun photosynthesis and food chemical bonds Phylogeny study of evolutionary life Hypothesis organisms evolve to create complex organisms Some DNA similar to all organisms Why are viruses not living A virus can store and transmit information A virus can have a plasma membrane A virus cannot harness energy from the environment that39s why they are not living but viruses can replicate but not by itself Viruses inject into cell uses your energy transmit its genes into cell and cause it to replicate itself 0 Evolution change through life Notes stopped here
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