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by: Mallory Jean Becker

Islam28.pdf ART 275

Mallory Jean Becker
GPA 3.47
World Arts: Visual
Maggie Duncan-Flowers

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About this Document

Sorry the notes are so late! in the future ill try and have them up by Friday
World Arts: Visual
Maggie Duncan-Flowers
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Jean Becker on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 275 at Illinois State University taught by Maggie Duncan-Flowers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see World Arts: Visual in Art at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 09/01/15
0 Map of the Muslim Conquest of Middle East Islam 2 8125115 0 Key Terms 0 Distant view of Dome of the Rock Byzantineshad impact on early Muslim art Persians had impact on early Muslim art Damascus first capital of the Muslim empire establishes 661 by Muawiyya Muawiyya established first capital first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty Umayyad Dynasty first dynasty in the Islamic Empire 0 Jerusalem 68769192 0 Key terms and names 0 Pilgrims approaching the dome of the Rock Jerusalem Caliph Abd alMalik build the Dome of the Rock oldest Islamic sanctuary outside of Arabia Mount Moriah Temple Mount Dome of the Rock was built on Mount Moriah overlooks another mountain where the tomb of Christ was AlAqsa Mosque one of the earliest mosques that is mentioned in the Qur an called quotthe farthest mosque built after the Muslims took control of Jerusalem and replaced later replaced by the Umayyad s 0 Key Terms I AlMiraj the quotNight Journey When Muhammad ascended into heaven guarded by the arch angel Gabriel to the throne of god 0 Aerial view of the rock o Dome of the Rock quot 0 Main Entrance o Centralized plan I Round or octagonal form I Vertical axis I Dome vaulted ceilings o Cutaway drawing of the Dome of the Rock 0 Key architectural terms I Doubleshelled dome I Stucco fine grained plaster medium developed into an exquisite art in Muslim world I DrumDome is elevated on the Drum I Circular arcade a series of attached arches I Piers pillars I Voussoirs wedged shaped stones I Ablaq alternating light and dark voussoirs I Ambulatory walk ways 0 View into the circular core of the Dome of the Rock 0 Key Terms I Mosaic millions of little tiny glass cubes called Tessera and they are imbedded in plaster to form a design I Tessera pl Tesserae colored glass cubes used in Mosaic I Voussoirs 0 View of the upper walls and painted wood ceiling panels 0 Key terms I Kufic script inscription running across the top of upper inner ambulatory is the earliest example of Kufic script developed from copying the Qur an contains passages from the Qur an that proclaim the Muslim view of Jesus I sa what Jesus is called in the Qur an Muslims do not believe he is the son of God IE39 3 El i 10melrcs 0 Plan of the House of the Prophet in Medina 0 Key Terms 0 Plan of the Great Mosque of Damascus 0 Syria Salat Masjidijami word for communal mosque translated it means quotMosque of the collective Qibla the direction of prayer towards Mecca l 0 Early 8th century 0 Key Terms and Components of Mosque architecture 0 Great Mosque of Damascus Hypostyle prayer hall large hall covered with a flat of vaulted roof that is supported by rows and rows of columns or piers or both Qibla wall wall closest to Mecca Mihrab the focus of the mosque receives the richest ornament Imam leader of the prayer in the Friday service Minbar stair like structure the pulpit to the right of the Mihrab Dome Bay a square of a rectangular special unit Courtyard very large quiet space for the preparation for prayer and other activities Porticoes Fountains for ritual cleans for ritual cleansing Minaret towers in or near the courtyard of the mosque symbols of power gave distinction to the mosque Where Muezzins made the prayer call from Muezzin made the call to prayer had to calculate the time of prayer high position Adhan quotcall to prayer made five times a day r I war I 0 Syria 705714 0 Founded and built by Umayyad caliph AlWalid 0 View through the aisles of the prayer hall Great Mosque of Damascus 0 705714 0 Key Terms I Monolithic columns and capitals from roman buildings columns were carved out of one stone 0 Courtyard with Fountain and minaret in the Background 0 Great mosque of Damascus 0 705714 0 Main Entrance to prayer hall 0 Great Mosque of Damascus o Semicircular hall with balusrade Portico o Mosaic from the Western Portico Great Mosque of Damascus Urban palace by a river Rustic villa by a river 0 Mosaic from the western portico 0 Great mosque of Damascus Great Mosque of Cordoba on the Banks of Guadalquivir River 0 Cordoba Spain 0 Founded in 7846 by Abd alRahman 1 only survivor of a massacre I Umayyad Prince r 75688 I Emir commander of AlAndalus Muslim Spain Progressive changed and enlargements of the plan of the Great Mosque of Cordoba o Hypostyle Plan 0 Very easy to build Original Prayer Hall of Abd alRahman 0 Great Mosque of Cordoba 0 Key Terms I Double tiered integrated arcades two arches one on top of the other 17 1W l y y a A 7 Arches of the Superstructure 0 Great mosque of Cordoba 0 Key Terms I Horseshoe arches an arch that forms a horseshoe I Ablaq masonry technique alternating light and dark red and white voussoirs Reading notes Chapter 2 page 2936 0 Islamic mosaics differ from the Byzantine mosaics 0 Islamic mosaics don t depict figures in elaborate settings they show signs and symbols 0 They don t highlight structural parts of the building but cover them similar to how they used to cover religious items with cloth I The Ka ba o The architectural models that inspired the design of the Dome of the Rock were Byzantine Christian martyria and churches o The subjects depicted on the exterior of the Great mosque of Damascus are landscapes featuring trees rivers and buildings 0 The first official capital of the Islamic empire was located in Damascus o Voussoirs are wedge shaped stones used to make arches o The Wall oriented toward Mecca in a Mosque is called the qibla wall 0 The Romans Ammonites and Christians all built structures on the site where the Great Mosque of Damascus now stands 0 Horseshoe arches are a feature of the Great Mosque of Cordoba o Polylobed arches were first used by the builders of the Great Mosque of Cordoba o Ribbed vaults first appeared in the Great Mosque of Cordoba o The Dome of the Rock was built over destroyed Jewish Temples o The third holiest site in Islam is the Halam alSharif with the Dome of the Rock 0 The tiny cubes used to make designs are knows as tesserae Islam 2 82715 0 Map of the Middle East 0 Key Terms I Abbasid Dynasty replaced Umayyad dynasty in 750 I Caliph AlMansur decided to move the capital east toward the Tigris River I Medina al 0 Plan of Baghdad Medina alSalaam City of Peace 762 Build by AlMansur r 745775 Double ring of walls Four fortified gates Outer ringsresidentialcommercial Central Space I Ruler s palace in center I Masjidijami communal masque OOOOOOO I Gardens I Pools and pavilions I Administrative center 0 Ground plan of Samarra o Founded by alMutasim in 863 0 Different from Baghdad because it was very spread out along the river and Baghdad was very structures and secluded o Grew and collapsed in less than a century 0 Plan of the Great Mosque of Samarra o Builty by Caliph alMutawakkil in the 9th century 0 Prayer hall I Hypostyle supported on brick piers I Flat wooden roof teak wood I Square Mihrab in qibla wall I Wall decoration in qibla area Marble panels and glass mosaics o Courtyard I Deep multiaisled porticoes 0 Great Mosque of Samarra o Built by Caliph alMutawakkil in the 9th century 0 Key Terms I Ziyada the space in between I Minaret the tower in front of the mosque means light house 0 AlMalawiyya 0 Great Mosque of Samarra 0 Different Styles of Kufic scripts o bn Muqla System of Proportion and Cursive scrips 0 Key Terms I bn Muqla developed rules of proportion for cursive scripts I Alif first letter in the Arabic alphabet I Cursive scripts I Remember Naskh and Thuluth o Naskh very easy to write expressive script that people deemed suitable for the Qur an o Thuluth called monumental script It is big and bold and has many swooping characteristics 0 Folio from a Qur an o Sura 18 alKahf o Copied in Near East Hijaz Arabian peninsula 0 Late 9th to Early 10th century 0 Key Terms I Palmette medallion 0 9th century Uthmanic Qur an Manuscript 0 Key Terms I quotAlQur an I Abu Bakr first caliph after the profit commissioned the first Qur an I Uthman third caliph decided to redo the Qur an I quotAlMusraf quotthe volume 5 perfect copies of the qur an o Mihrab 0 Great Mosque of Cordoba 0 10th century 0 Key Terms I Horseshoe arch would form a circle if you completed it I Polylobed cusped arch when one arch is made up of several smaller arches I Voussoirs wedged shaped stones used to make the arches I Arabesque plant design has a central stem with branches coming off the branches split in two and one part will curl back around but other one will go off and continue to split off until you run out of space I Lobed and cusped interlaced doubletiered arches o Mihrab dome 0 Great mosque of Cordoba 0 10th century 0 Key terms I Interlaced ribs arch cross each other and make an octagonal base for the dome I Polylobed fluted cupolaunique designs set in mosaics at the base of the dome o Alhambra Qal at alHamra quotThe Red Fort in the Kingdom of Granada 0 Established in 1238 by Muhammad o Founded by the Nasrid dynasty 0 Located on spur of Sierra Nevada Mountains 0 Comares Palace preceded by the Court of Myrtles administrative center 0 Court of Lions in the Palace of Lions 0 Built by Muhammad V between 13541391 0 Please palace and entertainment center 0 F ountain with Lions supporting Basin 0 Court of Lions in the Palace of Lions 0 Alhambra o Honeycomb Muqarnas dome 0 Hall of the Two Sisters 0 Palace of Lions 0 Alhambra 0 Key Terms I Muqarnas tiers of nicheshaped forms Reading notes Chapter two pages 36340 0 Great Congregational Mosque in Isfahan I Located in Isfahan I Was built by the ruler Saljud I The deep arched entrance vaults of this structure are known as iwans I Tiers of niche shaped forms are applied to the surface of this monuments are known as maquarnas The Abbasid capital on the Tigris river was built in a circle The building of the city of Samara was precipitated by a conflict between the Arab population and the Turkish guard Harun alRaschid was responsible for the founding of quotThe house of wisdom Al Malawiyya was located in Samara The earliest Arabic script was developed in Kufa One of the positive effects following the Mongol takeover of the Islamic empire was trade flowing east to west which brought prosperity


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