8/20-8/27 notes GEO 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Butler on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rezene Mahatsente in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
What is geology Study of the earth 0 Formation and composition crust mantle core 0 Long term record of lifes evolution 0 Long term history of climate change 0 Practical applications What do geologists do 0 Minerals exploration Hydrocarbon exploration 0 Environmental policy cleanup hydro costal Civil engineering 0 Research and development 0 Teaching 0 Many other opportunities for geologists Scienti c inquiry and method Observationcollect data through observation and measurements Propose hypothesis tentative explanation Formulate theory well tested widely accepted view that scienti c community agrees best explains certain observable facts OBSERVATION I HYPOTHESIS I THEORY ILAW Principle of Uniformitarianism Present is the key to the past Magnitude of Geologic time 0 Geologic or geodynamic process Early evolution of Solar System BIG BANG THEORY Matter and energy packed in a small point 0 Point exploded Greater than 1 billion degrees 0 Expansion the universe continued to grown and cool Nebula Composed of H and He 0 The stars were formed 0 There were over Boo billion stars including sun 1 Formation of stars a Gravitational collapse of nebula density temperature and rate of rotation increases b Formation of the protosun star at center 2 Formation of planet 3 Formation of Earths layered structure a Metals sunk to middle b Molten rock rose to make mantle c Chemical segregation established 3 layers d Primitive atmosphere evolved from gases in earths interior The earths system 0 The geomagnetic eld 0 The atmosphere 0 Land and oceans The Earth System 0 atmosphere gas around astronomical object Hydrosphere water 0 Lithosphereouter shell of earth 0 Interiorinternal part of the earth 0 Biosphere variety of life Origin of Earth s magnetic eld 0 Internal Self excited dynamo 0 External 0 gt atmospheric origin extrateresterial electrical charges 0 gt causes short period variation Solar wind amp Geomagnetic eld 0 Solar wind interacts with Earth s magnetic eld 0 The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun It consists of mostly electrons and protons The magnetic eld protects the Earth s surface from dangerous charged particles The Atmosphere 0 Changes with elevation and has different levels Land and Ocean 0 70 water and 30 earth lnternal Structure Crust o Mantle Core Earthquakes Shock waves in the crust Seismic Waves 0 Primary Waves 0 Push and pull motion 0 Travel through solid liquid and gas 0 Secondary Waves 0 Shake motion at right angles 0 Travel only through solids Oceanic crust Basalt gabbro Ma cmagnesium and iron ferric Continental crust Felsicfeldspar and quartz amp Ma cOn average felsic granite ManUe Peridotiteultrama c lnternal structure Rigidity amp Plasticity 1 Lithosphere rigid part of the Earth can break or bend outer 100 150 km of the Earth 2 Asthenosphere plastic can ow without breaking PLATE TECHTONICS THEORY Continental drift hypothesis Sea oor Spreading Theory Earth s major plates Move at slow continuous rate 5 cmyr2 inches Cooler denser slabs of oceanic lithosphere descend lnto mantle subduction CONTENINTAL DRIFT Continental Fit Similarity of Paleozoic Rock Sequences Similarity of Mountain Ranges Paleozoic glacial deposits FossHs SEAFLOOR SPREADING THEORY Paleomagnetic reversals Age of the sea oor sediments Thickness of the sea oor sediments PLATES AND PLATE BOUNDRIES Active margins plate boundaries follow continental margins boundary between continent and ocean Passive margins plate boundaries do not follow continental margins FORMATION OF OCEANIC CRUST quotPILLOW BASALTSquot Magma from partially melted mantle rock Magma injects into fractures above magma chambers Chills quickly form pillow basalts BLACK SMOKERS Seawater circulates downward through fractures Rock altered by water circulation Water dissolve ions of metals amp precipitate them as black smokers I CONTENINTAL RIFTING Processes Pull apart of continental lithosphere Stretching Crustal thinning Faulting Asthenospheric upwelling Melting Volcanism COLLIDES oceaniccontinental oceaniccontinental continentcontinent FAULT PLATE 2 plates slid past each other HOT SPOTS Pate boundary volcanoes Occur near trench and MOR Hot spots Not plate boundary volcanoes located in the interiors of plates eg volcanic islands Used to determine absolute plate motion thought to be stationary Triple Junction Ridge Ridge Ridge Transform trench Transform What drives plate motion Relative plate velocity relative to mid ocean ridge Absolute plate velocity relative to a mantle plume HotSpot GPS accurate and reliable prediction in mmy Opening and Closing Basin Supercontinent cycle large continents moving apart amp coming back together Long before Pangaea Rodinia existed 600 million years a go rifted a pa rt fragments later reassembled into Pangaea
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