Module 1; Lecture 2
Module 1; Lecture 2 SOC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Conrad on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
Committing Sociology 0 sociology is an activity a method of doing follows scientific method 0 ask question research existing sources formulate a hypothesis design and conduct study draw conclusions report results 0 the way we ask questions and construct experiments for sociology sociological question must be specific in terminology O particularly with measurementswhat your data is l example better teachers better how 0 independent variable is the given the thing we can t control in experiments I example the degree of better that my teachers haveexperience I remember ID variable in uences Change in the DP variable 0 dependent variable is affected by ID variable I example student learning outcomescan be explained potentially by teachers betternessquot 0 Types of Research 0 Applied Research directly address social problemneed 0 Basic Research describe some aspect of society and advance our understanding of it 0 Public Sociology bring the findings of both basic and applied sociological research to a broader nonacademic audience 0 Unquestioned trust in authorities Children believing in Santa relies on the truth claims of authority figures parentsadults Believing any or all authority figures simply because they have authority One must be skeptical of claims solely based on someones status 0 Science research 4 key elements 0 Identifying and understanding social life patterns 0 Gathering empirical evidence I evidence that can be observed or documented using human senses l Quantitative Data evidence that can be summarized numerically in the form of variablesmeasures that can Change and thus have different values I Qualitative Data any kind of evidence that is not numerical includes evidence gathered from observations interviews and written or visual documents I Variables ID or DP Correlation is the relationship in which change in one variable is connected to Change in the other 0 explaining how evidence was collected and analyzed 0 viewing resulting claims as provisional knowledge 0 Hypothesis starting point for quantitative research a statement about the relationship between variable that is to be investigated 0 Roles of Theory 0 highlight key questions or issues 0 help explain the data collected I need the data to assess the accuracy of theory I better understanding when considering theory and data together 0 see the connections between phenomena that are not immediately apparent l example theory of rituals as rites of passage we can see common features of graduations funerals and street baptisms Survey Research data collection technique that involves asking someone a series of questions 0 most commonly used technique 0 very versatile and effectively describe large populations 0 Different definitions validity refers to successfully measuring what you intend to measure 0 when interpreting results I population what was target group I sample who participated in the study part of the population that represents the whole Intensive Interview data gathering technique that uses open ended questions 0 semi structured but also improvised 0 take longer so generally there are fewer samples than for normal surveys l makes it difficult to generalize a researchers findings to the larger population 0 interviewing in focus groups6 12 people helps expand the number of people involved Existing Sources 0 available data and documents instead of collecting new data I secondary data analysis Experiment 0 data gathering technique in which researcher manipulates an ID variable under controlled conditions to determine if change in ID produces change in DP variable 0 cause and effect relationship I control group no change I stimulustreatment group exposed to something different 0 then compare results of both groups Anonymity subjects are nameless even to reader so surveys are more accurate 0 hard to achieve so often confidentiality is ensuredsubject identity won t be released to public I informed consent principle that subjects in any study must know about the nature of the research project potential benefits or risks right to stop participation at any time Operationalize 0 define the variables you are interested in studying Positivism Comte s idea that an approach that assumes that the social world like the natural world is characterized by laws that can be identified through research and used to predict and control human affairs O value neutrality removing personal views from research project I sociologists job is to study world not try to change it Interpretive Social Science understanding of the meaning that people ascribe to their social world 0 researchers try to empathize with people they study to gain their perspective 0 often traced back to MaX Weber verstehento understand Critical Social Science 0 research carried out eXplicitly to create knowledge that can be used to bring about social change I interested in improving society I Karl Marx The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways the point however is to change itquot Peer Review Process 0 scholars evaluate research manuscripts before they are published to ensure their quality I editors send it out anonymously to be reviewed by other scholars in said field I send back strengthsweaknesses I only published if determined credible loaded language words with strong positive or negative connotations The Hawthorne Effect how observation by social science researchers can affect the behavior of subject Quota Sample a generalizable sample in which various groups in the target population are chosen to be present in representative portions Provisional research idea that all truth claims are tentative and open to revision if new evidence is discovered transparency requirement that researchers eXplain how they collected and analyzed their evidence and how they reached their conclusions
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